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Full text of "Young artist's assistant; or, Elements of the fine arts, containing the principles of drawing, painting in general, crayon painting, oil painting, portrait painting, miniature painting, designing, colouring, engraving, &c., &c"

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of tSIonmto 

The Harris Family 
Eldon House 
Londcm, Ont. 

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Author of the New Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language, Elements of 
Natural Theology, Scientific Amusements, &c. Ac. 


Eonlron : 








Implements and Materials used in Drawing i 3 

General Instructions 8 

Drawing the Figure 13 

Drawing of Drapery SI 

Drawing of Landscapes 23 


Tracing Paper 32 

Tracing against the Light *6 

Another method of using Transparent Paper ib \ 

Copying drawings, &c. with fixed Materials 33 

To transfer any Impression with Vermilion < ib. 

To obtain the true shape and fibres of a Leaf ....... 34 

Stenciling 35 

The Camera Obscura ib.' 

The Portable Camera Obscura 86 



School of Florence j& 

Roman School 43 

Venetian School ** ! 

Lombard School 46 

French School 49" 

The German School 5* 

The Flemish School 56 

The Dutch School 58 

The English School 61 


Of Invention . < 73 

Of Composition 76 

Of Design * 79 

The Apollo Belvidere 85 

The Groupe of Laocoon 87 

Expression of the Passions 89 

Of Clair obscure, or Chiaro-scuro 9* 

Of Colouring 98 

Conclusion 101 




OF COLOURS. The method of preparing the various kinds 
used in Painting 1*5 


Of Red colours 144 

Of Blue colours 154 

Of Yellow colours 164 

Of Green colours 171 

Of Purple colours 17* 

Of Brown colours 175 

Of White colours 1" 

Of Black colours 180 

Method of preparing Blackmail's Oil-colour Cakes 183 



Of painting Flesh. Principal colours from which all the 
tints of the Flesh are made, and their qualities in 

painting 187 

Principal tints composed from the foregoing principal 

colours, and necessary for painting flesh J89 

First stage, or dead-colouring of Flesh 192 

Second painting, or second stage 195 

Third painting, or finishing 196 

Of painting draperies 197 

Of painting back grounds 211 

Of painting Landscapes 215 

First painting or dead colouring 216 

Second painting 217 

Third and last painting 820 


Of the Materials used in Crayon Painting 236 

Of rolling the Crayons and disposing them for painting 241 


Colours used in Miniature Painting 244 

Grinding the colours and preparing them for the pallet- 245 

Of hair pencils. Manner of choosing them, &c 246 

Ivory. Method of choosing, bleaching, and preparing it 247 
Instructions for mixing compound tints for the face .... 5o 

Of colours proper for men's draperies 252 

Of painting the face in Miniature 255 





Of the substances used for forming Fluxes 269 

Of substances used for forming the body of enamel, or fluxes 271 
Of the substances used for producing a white colour in ena- 
mel for forming the grounds .'.... 072 







Fig 11. 

Fig- iv: 


L - l 






DRAWING forms so elegant and agreeable an 
amusement for leisure hours, and has so wide a range 
of general utility, it cannot fail to be attractive to a 
polished mind. It is equally adapted to both sexes 
and to all ages ; and whether it be employed in em- 
bodying the forms of fancy, or delineating the beauties 
of nature, and the inventions of art, it never fails to 
be a source of amusement. It is the basis of Paint- 
ing, Designing, Sculpture, Architecture, Engraving, 
Modelling, Carving, and most of those arts that are 
the offspring of fancy and that embellish civilized life- 

To enable those who may not hare the assistance of 
a skilful instructor, to become masters of this desirable 
accomplishment, we shall give plain and concise di- 
rections, and point out such a mode of study as we 
trust will render the task of acquiring it pleasant, and 
remove many impediments, which, without such as- 
sistance, would retard their improvement 

In the formation of a painter, genius is the first and 
most indispensible requisite, for the deficiency of which 


no human acquirements can compensate. A picture, 
like a poem, would afford little pleasure, though 
formed according to the strictest rules of art, and 
finished with the most indefatigable attention, were 
genius wanting to complete the design a design 
which may be said to be like the celebrated statue 
fashioned by Prometheus, lovely, but lifeless, unless 
genius, like the fire which he is fabled to have stolen 
from heaven, darts its invigorating ray, and gives a 
soul to the finished piece. 

But though genius is absolutely necessary, since 
nothing excellent can be done without it, yet it will 
not alone suffice. Like a rich but uncultivated soil, 
it would be fruitful only in weeds, were not its exu- 
berances corrected by the rules of art, by reflection, 
and a strict attention to nature, which as the grand 
object of a painter's meditations, ought never to be 
out of his sight; it is the only source of beauty, since 
nothing can be pleasing that is not natural. 

An intimate knowledge of the works of the ancients 
will be of the greatest advantage ; they made nature 
their peculiar study, ancj transmitted to us examples 
which have ever been considered as forming a perfect 
rule of beauty. 

A close and servile imitation, however, is not what 
we would wish to recommend ; a man may find his 
account in attending to the manner, and storing up 
the observations of a well-bred and intelligent acquain, 
tance, without ridiculously affecting his gait, or copy- 
ing his phraseology. 

To proceed regularly and methodically, we shall 
first direct the learner's attention to the 


Implements and Materials used in Drawing 

DRAAVING-BOARDS are for fixing the paper upon, so 
that it may not shift, and also for straining it, to pre- 
vent the colours, when laid wet upon the paper, from 
causing it to swell up, so as to be uneven. The sim- 
plest sort is made of a deal -board, framed square, with 
a strong piece across each end, to prevent warping. 
Upon this the paper may be fixed down with pins, 
wafers, or sealing wax, or it may be strained with 
paste or glue, as follows : having wetted the paper 
well with a sponge, lay it upon the board, and turn- 
ing up the edges about half an inch, run a little good 
paste or glue all round on the under side, and press 
the paper down upon the board with a cloth; then set 
it by to dry : the paper, which had expanded and blis- 
tered much when wet, will contract in drying, while the 
edges, being fixed immoveably, will strain quite flat 
and tight, and will be much better for drawing upon 
than when loose. 

The best kind of drawing-boards, however, are 
made with a frame and a moveable pannel, upon 
which the paper is simply put wet, and then forced 
into the frame, where it is confined by wedges at the 
back. This strains equally well, without the trouble 
of pasting, so that you may dry it at the fire ; and it 
also looks much neater. These drawing-boards may 
be bought at most colour shops. It is necessary to 
mention, that all the angles of drawing-boards should 
be exactly square. 

Parallel-rulers are for drawing parallel lines very 
readily : they are made of two pieces of ebony fasten- 
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ed together by brass bars, so as always to move 
parallel to each other. They may be bought of differ- 
ent kinds and prices, at the mathematical instrument 

Tee-squares are rulers made in the form of the letter 
T, which are used with the drawing-boards, the short 
end, called the stock, being applied to the edge of the 
board, so as to slide forwards and backwards ; while 
the long part, called the blade, is used for drawing 
lines by. These are more convenient than parallel 
rulers, when a drawing-board is used, as by them you 
draw lines at right angles to each other at once, 
without using the compasses. 

Dividing-compasses are instruments of brass and 
steel, for dividing lines, and laying down measures 
from scales, &c. : they are generally sold in cases 
containing also a steel pen, for drawing lines clearer 
than can be done by a common pen, which is very use- 
ful where neatness is required ; and points with a 
black-lead pencil, forputting into the compasses, when 
circles are to be described. These cases also contain 
scales of equal parts, such as are used in geometry, 
and protractors for laying down angles. All these 
may be had at the instrument-makers. 

Black-lead pencils are made of a mineral substance 
called plumbago, or black-lead, which is a carburet o f 
iron, sawed into slips, and fitted into sticks of cedar. 
They are of various qualities. The best are fine, with- 
out any grit, not too soft, and that cut easily without 
breaking. An inferior kind, made by mixing up the 
dust of black lead with gum or glue, and forming a 
composition, which is fitted into sticks in the same 


manner as the best : these are always gritty, and do 
not answer so well for most drawings, yet, being 
cheaper, they may be used upon many occasions. It 
is necessary to examine pencils before any quantity is 
bought, by cutting one of them, because the composi- 
tion pencils, having the same outward appearance, are 
often sold for the best. 

Indian-rubber, or elastic gum, as it is also called, is 
a substance very much like leather, which has the 
curious and useful property of erasing or defacing lines 
drawn with black-lead ; it is therefore much used for 
this purpose. It is brought chiefly from South Ame- 
rica, in the form of small bottles, which are cut up 
into slips. It is originally the juice of a tree that 
grows abundantly in Surinam, and is like milk when 
exuded from the tree, but soon becomes -solid when 
exposed to the air. The natives form balls of clay 
which they smear over with this milk ; when this coat- 
ing is almost dry, they apply another, and so on, till 
it is of the required thickness ; they then moisten the 
clay with water, which does not dissolve the Indian- 
rubber, and wash it out. These bottles are used by 
the natives for containing water, or other liquors. It 
is a production common to the East Indies also, from 
whence it is imported in various forms, more conve- 
nient for use than the bottles above-mentioned. 

Indian-ink. This very useful substance comes from 
China, where it is used for common writing, which is 
there performed with a brush, instead of a pen. It is 
a solid substance, of a brownish black colour; and the 
composition is not known, but is conjectured to be the 
gall of a species of cuttle-fish. When ground up with 
B 3 


water upon a clean tile or earthen-ware plate, it may 
be made either lighter or darker, as required, by add- 
ing to it more or less water. The best Indian-ink is 
always stamped with Chinese characters, breaks with 
a glossy fracture, and feels smooth, and not gritty, 
when rubbed against the teeth. An inferior kind is 
made in this country ; but it may be easily known by 
its grittiness. This is made of lamp-black or ivory- 
black, ground up with gum. 

Hair-pencils are made of camel's hair, put into a 
goose or swan's quill. To choose these, moisten them 
a little, and if they come to a point, without splitting, 
they are good ; if they do not, they are not fit for 
drawing with. The brushes used by the Chinese, 
made of a white hair fitted up in reeds, are very excel- 
lent for drawing ; being much superior for landscapes 
and many other purposes, to ours made of camel's hair, 
as they are more elastic. They are not sold here in 
common, but they may sometimes be met with. 

Charcoal is used for slightly sketching in the out- 
lines of figures, in order to get the proportions, pre- 
vious to making a drawing in chalk. The best char- 
coal for this purpose is that of the willow : it is cut 
into slips, and the strokes made with it may easily be 
rubbed out with a feather of goose's or duck's wing. 

Black-chalk is a fossil substance, resembling slaty 
coal, which is cut into slips for drawing. It is gene- 
rally used in an instrument called a port-crayon, 
which is made of steel or brass. It is much employed 
for drawing figures, and is the best substance for this 
purpose, in making drawings from plaister, or after 
the life. It is more gritty than black-lead, but is of a 
deeper black, and has not the glossiness of the for- 


mer. It is of two kinds, French and Italian ; the for- 
mer is soft, the latter hard. 

For mellowing and softening the shadows into 
each other when black chalk is used. 

Stumps are necessary. They are pieces of soft 
shamoy leather, or blue paper, rolled up quite tight, 
and cut to a point. 

White-chalk is used together with black, for laying 
on the lights. This is different from common chalk, 
being much harder. Tobacco-pipe clay will do very 
well instead of it. 

Red-chalk is a fossil substance of a red ocheiy colour 
which is sometimes used for drawing, but not so much 
now as it formerly was, the black being preferred ; 
however, the red being cheaper, will do very well for 
some purposes. 

Drawing-paper, Any paper that will do for writing 
will do for drawing ; but as the wire marks in com- 
mon writing paper are injurious, paper made without 
any wire marks, called wove paper, is generally used 
for this purpose. It is made of various sizes and 

Middle tint-paper, is paper of a brownish or of a 
grey colour, which is used for drawing upon with 
black and white chalk. Being of a dark colour, the 
strokes of the white chalk are distinctly seen ; and it 
saves a great deal of time in making drawings, as the 
tint of the paper answers for the half shadow, so that 
all that is necessary to be done, is to lay in the dark 
shadows and the lights. 



THUS furnished with materials and implements, the 
student must confine himself to the copying of single 
subjects, and by no means attempt groups of objects, 
as the eye, more rapid than thought, will wander over 
them and confound his ideas, not yet taught the fa- 
culty, of discrimination ; to attain this faculty, it is 
absolutely necessary to advance pregressively, com- 
mencing with the geometrical figures of arches, circles, 
ovals, cones, cylinders, and squares, which except 
the latter, have an evident resemblance to many of 
the forms of nature, and accurately attain the shading 
which produces the rotundity, convexity, angles, and 
' most remote parts from the .eye. Grapes detached 
from, or adhering in clusters to the stalk, and many 
other fruits with their leaves, furnish excellent hints 
for the acquiring of graceful turns, and the art of 
placing justly, strong, direct, and reflected lights. 
Those require no rules or directions whatever, even in 
the colouring, as the tints may be composed from the 
originals. Trees should also be drawn singly, care- 
fully observing the nature of the bark, the character- 
istics of the trunk, the particular ramifications of the 
branches, the form of the leaves, and their appearance 
in the aggregate, so that an observer shall, upon the 
first inspection of the drawing, pronounce whether it 
is an oak, an elm, an ash, or a poplar. 

Animals may be the next object of the learner's at- 
tention, a knowledge of the forms of which will be 
best obtained by examining the most approved draw- 
ings and prints, copying them and comparing them 


v?ith living subjects, carefully avoiding in future such 
errors as may de discovered ; he then may proceed to 
the human figure, commencing his labours with draw- 
ing the eye,mouth,nose, feet hands, &c. separately, till 
he is perfect, when the whole figure may be attempted. 
The copying of inanimate substances requires but few 
directions, as they lay fixed, and may be placed in 
any position ; but is far otherwise in drawing from 
animals or man, for which reason an accurate know- 
ledge of the true shape of the bones, the disposition 
of the muscles, and the exact relative proportions of 
the different parts of the body must absolutely be ac- 
quired ; nor is this all that is necessary, motion con- 
tinually varying the appearances of the muscles, the 
student must learn from living subjects every swell 
or depression in them which is not the consequence 
of unnatural distortion ; as there are certain limits to 
their motion, he should be capable of ascertaining 
those limits correctly from remembrance. - Jt having 
pleased the Divinity to grant the human race the 
most graceful variety of curved forms throughout the 
exterior of their frames, and each being subject to 
sudden and unexpected changes, we may safely as- 
sert the artist has a most difficult task in his attempts 
to delineate them ; in order to do so successfully, it 
would be well for him to imitate the parts already 
mentioned from good drawings, with black lead or 
black chalk, on either of the papers before recommen- 
ded, endeavouring to give a close resemblance of the 
outlines with charcoal, and then shading with the 
greatest care, after the original, in parallel lines cf 
greater or less strength, according with the curve to 
B 4 


be expressed ; those to be intersected by others form- 
ing lozenge intervals ; this mechanical part of the art 
of shading will be better explained by the drawing 
copied from, than by any directions. 

The young artist ought, if practicable, to visit the 
Royal Academy, where he will see, at a glance, how 
the light should be disposed to draw with effect ; if 
tfiat is impossible, he must remember to throw one 
light downward on the object, whether it proceeds 
from the day or a candle ; arid that he cannot too 
strictly attend to the true proportions of the body and 
limbs, as nothing is more disgusting than to see a 
man with a head unnaturally large, an enormous 
mouth, short legs, or too long arms ; to prevent his 
falling into such errors, let him observe, that in a well 
formed person, his arms extended makes a distance 
between the extremities of the middle fingers equal 
to his length ; that the face consists of three exact 
divisions, from the hair on the forehead to the eyes, 
from the eyes to the bottom of the nose, and from 
that to the chin. The whole figure is ten faces in 
length ; from the chin to the collar-bone is twice the 
length of the nose, thence to the lowest part of the 
breast one face, from that to the navel another, to 
the groin one, to the upper part of the knee two, the 
knee is half a face in length, from the lower part of 
of which to the ancle is two faces, and hence to the 
sole of the foot is one half. Measuring from the ex- 
tremes of the breast, the breadth will be found to 
contain two faces, and the bone of the arm from the 
shoulder to the elbow, the same number; thence in- 
cluding part of the hand, two faces ; and from the 


shoulder-blade to the hollow between the collar-bones 
is one face. The thumb is the length of the nose 
from the commencement of the hand to the middle of 
the arm is five lengths of the nose ; and from the pec- 
toral muscle to the same place is four. The great toe 
is of the length of the nose, and the sole of the foot 
is the sixth part of the length of the figure ; the hands 
are double their breath in length, and when extended 
they are exactly the length of the face. The breadth 
of the limbs vary according to the state of health in 
the body, and the particular situation of the muscles 
whenever moved. 

The proportions of children are generally thus : 
three heads in length from the crown of the head to 
the groin, and thence to the sole of the foot two, one 
head and a half between the shoulders, one, of the 
body between the hips and armpits ; the breadth of 
the limbs should be ascertained from a healthy child. 

It is perhaps impossible to draw a perfectly beauti- 
ful figure from any one person : The most skilful sta- 
tuaries and painters, sensible of this fact, have com- 
posed their finest works from different subjects, as it 
is very common for the possessor of a truly Grecian 
head to have a deformed trunk, or another to have 
graceful limbs and the face of a gorgon. To draw a 
figure correctly, the intended length should be mark- 
ed, and all the preceding admeasurements strictly ad- 
hered to, beginning the sketch on the left hand, with 
the head, following with the shoulders, the trunk, the 
leg most in action, then the other, finishing with the 
arms, and making the outline perfect before any part 
is finished ; as we may imagine a living or plaster mo- 


del placed before the student, that will serve better 
for improving him than any written instructions, but 
he will find the greatest difficulty in correctly copying, 
the eyes, mouth, ears, hands and feet, and should 
consequently be particularly careful when employed on 
those parts to which rules are utterly inapplicable. 

To represent the passions well, every possible atten- 
tion must be paid to their particular influence on the 
muscular system, certain determinate attitudes follow 
each sensation of the soul, and it is the muscles which 
express their energy ; in sleeping or quiescent bodies 
they are not obtruded on the view, but when their 
action is excited by some pleasing or horrible cause, 
they become tense, or relax, and are partially very 
prominent ; the laocoon, and several of the single fi- 
gures of gladiators, are good studies for the muscles ; 
indeed the modern brethren of the latter, of pugilistic 
celebrity, might afford many useful hints of manly ex- 
ertion: it should be recollected, that the most violent 
emotions of the female sex do not produce the same 
appearances in their muscles as is observable from 
similar causes in men ; it would therefore be very im- 
proper to shew them as prominently ; in addition, per- 
sons in the lower ranks of life ought to be represented 
more muscular than the members of the highest orders 
of the community. 

Lest it should be supposed the foregoing rules are 
rather calculated for a person in some degree acquaint- 
ed with the art of drawing, than one beginning with 
the first rudiments, we shall descend to still further 


Drawing the Figure. 

The study of the human figure has always been con- 
sidered by artists as the most important part of the 
art. It is the most difficult, and is by many consider- 
ed as contributing the most of any to general improve- 
ment; though there are some who carry this idea to 
too great au extent, saying that a person who can draw 
the human figure well, can draw every thing besides. 
But this, it is well known, is not the case ; there being 
many artists who can draw the figure well, who can- 
not draw landscape nor architecture. To draw any 
thing well, requires a particular study. The study of 
the figure, however, includes all the finest principles 
of the art ; and when the eye of the student has been 
accustomed to copy faithfully all the minute circum- 
stances which constitute the character of a figure, and 
to attend to the innumerable beauties and graceful forms 
which it presents, he will be better qualified to pursue 
with advantage every other branch of the fine arts. 

In order to acquire a knowledge of the face, begin 
with drawing the features separate, placing the copy 
at such a distance as the eye may measure both it and 
the drawing without moving the head. Sketch in the 
first outline very light ; and, in rubbing it out, leave 
faint traces of the first sketch. By proceeding in this 
manner, without the assistance of rule or compass, the 
outline should be brought to the greatest exactness ; 
and in placing the features, a perfect oval should be 
formed, through which a perpendicular line is drawn 
in the middle; and across the centre of this, a diame- 
ter line from one side of the oval to the other. On 


these all the features of the face are to be drawn, ac- 
cording to the following rules for drawing a head. 

The perpendicular must be divided into four equal 
parts ; one from the crown of the head to the top of the 
forehead ; two from the top of the forehead to the eye- 
brows ; three from the eye-brows to the bottom of the 
nose ; four from thence to the bottom of the chin. 

The diameter line divide into five parts; the breadth 
of the face being supposed the length of five eyes; this 
is to be understood in a full front face only, and these 
proportions vary in different men, as to length and 
shape; but in a well proportioned face are nearly 
right, and should be strictly observed. 

When the face turns to either side, then the distan- 
ceg are to be lessened on that side from you, more or 
less, in proportion to its turning. Most artists begin 
the drawing with the nose, that being the centre; and 
then proceed to the other features, observing that the 
top of the ear is to rise parallel to the eye-brows ; the 
eye to be placed so as to leave exactly the length of 
one eye betwixt them ; the nostrils should not project 
farther than the corner of the eye ; and the middle of 
the mouth should be on the perpendicular line. In 
order to understand better the different turnings of the 
face, it may be very advantageous to procure a piece 
of wood, made in the shape and size of an egg ; draw 
a line down the middle as before directed : divide this 
in two equal parts, and draw another across the cen- 
tre : let the features be made as accurate as possible 
from the foregoing directions. By turning this oval, 
a great variety of faces will appear, according as it is 
inclined or turned ; but care must be taken to obserre 


in what manner the nose projects beyond the surface 
of the oval. A perfect knowledge of this may enable 
the student to form an idea of the face better than 
merely copying prints or pictures without it; but after 
this acquisition, let the best drawings or pictures be 
studied that can be procured ; previous to which 
those passions, in manner of Le Brun, may merit imi- 

The positions and actions of the hands and feet are 
so various, that a knowledge of them can only be ac- 
quired by great application and practice: carefully 
imitating such postures, both in hands and feet, as are 
found in good prints or drawings. Lines, measures, or 
such mechanical rules, are not only perplexing, but re- 
jected in the practice of the first masters. The best 
method is to lightly sketch the whole shape of the 
hand or foot with its position and action ; and ex- 
amine carefully that it be correct, rubbing out and al- 
tering it till it is so ; when the bending of the knuc- 
kles, the veins, joints, and tendons, may be drawn 
with much ease, after the shape of the larger parts is 
made perfect. 

The principal difficulty is overcome when a perfect 
outline is procured ; after which the shadows claim the 
attention of the student. Every appearance of bodies 
to be presented, animate or inanimate, in distance, 
shape, substance, and distinction, are perfected by this. 
Let them be first made broad and massy, without at- 
tending to the many little details which fall under a 
second consideration. 

In drawing after a pjaister figure, the eye will easily 
discover the general light and shade the mass of 


light should be kept broad, and be well attended to, 
before the smaller parts are divided. 

The outline should be exceedingly faint in such parts 
as receive the light. The rising of a muscle may, by 
its appearance, prove deceiving, and seem darker 
than it really is ; but by casting the eye to the other 
darker shadows, a true degree of its tint may be as- 
certained, and sometimes the light may catch on the 
projection of a bone near the mass of a shadow, which 
must be touched very tenderly, or it will have a harsh 
unpleasing effect. This may also be regulated by 
comparing it with the stronger lights. Observing 
this rule with care and exactness, is the only true 
means of preserving the effect of the whole together. 
But we have mentioned it as the best mode, in 
order for the young student to obtain a knowledge of 
the human figure for him to commence with drawing 
the features separate. For this purpose he should 
copy the best drawings he can procure of the eye, 
mouth, nose, and ear, separately, and on a large scale, 
and of these a front view, profile or side view, oblique 
view, &c. 

The best materials for drawing these, as well as all 
other parts of the figure, is black-chalk, or black-lead; 
the former may be used either upon white paper, or 
upon middle tint-paper; and in that case white chalk 
may be used for laying on the lights. Black-lead is 
only used upon white paper. A piece of soft charcoal 
may be made use of, for first slightly sketching in the 
general form, which must afterwards be gone over and 
corrected with black-chalk. The false lines of the 
black-lead may be removed by the Indian-rubber; but 


we recommend to be as sparing as possible of this, as it 
is more improving to endeavour to draw every thing 
correct and decided at once, and not trust to the being 
able to erase the lines which are wrong. 

The shadows may be laid on by drawing parallel 
curve-lines, according to the situation of the part, 
crossing them occasionally, and softening them in with 
more delicate lines, where necessary. 

All the parts of a human figure are composed of 
curved surfaces: no straight lines are ever admissable; 
but every line should have a graceful turn; and it is this 
circumstance particularly that occasions the study of 
the figure to give so much freedom in drawing. 

Care should be taken, that no lines ever cross each 
other at right-angles,which gives a disagreeable net-like 
appearance ; neither should the crossings be too ob- 
lique, as then they are confused : a proper medium will 
be acquired by the study of good drawings or prints; 
in general, however, crossing should be avoided as 
much as possible. 

Sometimes the shadows are rubbed in, or their edges 
are softened with a stump, which is a very expeditious 
way, and produces a fine effect; but it should be used 
with discretion, as it is better to execute the shadows 
in a clear and regular manner by soft lines. 

Care should be taken not to make the lines harsh 
and hard, like those of an engraving; they should be 
softer and more mellow. On this account, (Ironings are 
much better to learn from than prints, as, by copying 
the latter, the student is very apt to acquire a dry and 
hard manner. 

But we particularly caution him to avoid copying 


with a pen all the lines in engravings used for the sha- 
dows, which some, who have not been accustomed to 
see good drawings, are apt to do. 

Many productions of this kind have been executed 
with an immensity of labour, and have been thought 
very fine by those who had but little knowledge of the 
art; yet artists, and those who are good judges, al- 
ways consider them as very disgusting, and lament to 
see so much patience and labour misapplied. 

In copper-plate engravings, there are no other means 
of producing shadows but by lines, at least with an 
equal effect ; but this arises from the nature of the 
process ; and in drawing, which is of a different nature, 
there is not the same necessity for them. In general 
it should be observed, that the less labour there appears 
in any drawing, the better it is; and that though every 
possible pains should be taken to make drawings or 
paintings excellent, yet this labour should be dis- 
guised as much a possible, and the whole should ap- 
pear as if executed with the greatest ease. 

In learning to draw, it is of' more importance than 
is generally supposed, to copy from the finest works 
only. The most prejudicial quality of a model is me- 
diocrity. The bad strike and disgust; but those that 
are not good, nor absolutely bad, deceive us by offering 
a dangerous facility. It is for this reason that engrav- 
ing contributes to the progress of the arts, when it is 
employed on subjects that are judiciously chosen; but 
is too often prejudicial, by the indifferent works it mul- 
tiplies without number. But let Raphael be copied by 
skilful engravers, let a young artist profit by his labours, 
and works without dignity and expression will soon 


become intolerable to him; he will perceive to what 
an elevation the excellence of the art can raise him . 

The way to avoid mediocrity, is by the study and 
imitation of beautiful productions ; or, in want of them, 
of the most finished translations that have been made 
from them; for so we may call beautiful prints. Let 
a young draughtsman study the heads of Raphael, 
and he will not see without disgust the sordid figures 
of indifferent painters. , But if you feed him with in- 
sipid substances, he will soon lose the taste necessary 
to relish great excellencies. In the one case he will 
advance firmly in his career: in the other he will con- 
tinually totter, and even not be sensible of his own 

Having copied frequently the parts of a face, he is 
next to proceed to the entire head; drawing first a 
front view, then a profile, a three-quarter, and so on; 
varying in every possible direction, till he is thoroughly 
acquainted with the appearance of all the principal 
lines in every situation. 

By these exercises he will have acquired some fa- 
cility in handling his pencil ; but before he can pro- 
ceed to the study of the whole figure with advantage, 
we would recommend him to the study of the anatomy. 

An artist who is acquainted with the form and con- 
struction of the several bones which support and 
govern the human frame, and does not know in what 
manner the muscles moving those bones are fixed to 
them, can make nothing of what appears of them 
through the integuments with which they are covered : 
and which appearanqe is, however, the noblest object 
of the pencil. It is impossible for an artist to copy 


faithfully what he sees,unless he thoroughly understand 
it. Let him employ ever so much time and study in 
the attempt, it cannot but be attended with many and 
great mistakes ; just as must happen to a man who 
undertakes to copy something in a language which he 
does not understand, or to translate into his own what 
has been written in another on a subject with which 
he is not acquainted. 

But it is not necessary for him to study anatomy as 
a surgeon, nor to make himself acquainted with all 
the nerves, veins, &c. It is sufficient to study the 
skeleton, and the muscles which cover them, and of 
these, he should most particularly make himself fami- 
liar with those muscles which most frequently appear 
and come into action. 

For this purpose^ he should procure plaister casts of 
the anatomy of the human body, and consult treatises 
written upon the subject ; and if he have opportunity, 
it will be proper afterwards to attend discussions and 
lectures on anatomy. 

Being thus thoroughly prepared, he will be enabled 
to draw the human figure with great advantage, and 
he will make a more rapid progress than he could 
have done without these previous studies. 

But after the student has by persevering zeal ac- 
quired a facility of drawing- the human figure in every 
possible situation, and under every variety of form and 
circumstance, much remains for him still to do, before 
he can be considered an artist. He has yet conquered 
only the mechanical difficulties ; he has yet to make 
himself acquainted with a great variety of knowledge : 
historians and poets should be his constant compa- 


nions; and he should be familiar with the customs and 
manners of ancient as well as modern nations. 

Drawing of Drapery. 

In this particular we are in a great measure com- 
pelled to have recourse to the ancients, as however 
convenient our modern habits may be, they are de- 
cidedly ungraceful opposites to the tasteful clothing 
of antiquity ; for this reason every beautiful example 
from that pure source ought to be studied, carefully 
distinguishing the light, airy dresses of the heathen 
deities, and angels of a more recent conception, and 
their almost transparent folds clinging through mo- 
tion to their forms, from those intended expressly to 
cover nakedness, and preserve the person from the ill 
effects of cold air ; observing, besides, the particular 
shapes of garments, characteristic of the Jewish, 
Grecian, or Roman nations. 

Many statuaries have erred in representing their 
figures as if clothed in wet linen, in order to shew the 
contour of the limbs to greater perfection; but this 
absurdity carries its own condemnation with it. It 
must be obvious to the most superficial observer, that 
the texture of drapery should be suited to the inner or 
outward habit, and its richness, or the reverse, to the 
situation of the party represented : to determine this 
point with accuracy, it will be proper to read such 
works as describe the official and other habits of an- 
cient times, and compare the descriptions with an- 
tique statues and paintings ; the ornaments and insig- 
nia of the rich and powerful may be known by the 
same means, 


In drawing of fine linen, the folds should be made 
delicate, inclined to angles, and numerous or other- 
wise, according to the disposition of the habit on the 
body, \vhere k is confined by a girdle or broach, they 
are multiplied and in lines, but those should neither 
be parallel nor disposed like rays : the reflected and 
transparent lights are particularly pleasing in this 
material, nor are the shades ever deep and harsh. In 
cloaths made of wool, care must be taken to shew it 
fine on the rich, and coarse on the poor ; in either 
case the folds should be large, and by no means nu- 
merous, partly cylindrical in their form, sometimes 
angular, and at others waved, the lights must not be 
very strong, but the shades deep, and the reflected 
lights faint, if the colour of the dye is dark. Silks fall 
into the least graceful folds of any material used in 
clothing, it will be best, therefore, to draw them from 
reality, endeavouring to catch the most natural* and 
copying with great attention the brilliant edges which 
are their characteristics, and the numerous reflections 
occasioned by the gloss on the inferior projections. 
Jewels and ornaments of gold, embroidery, &c. will at 
times be useful, but there are no rules applicable to the 
drawing of them. In the general disposition of the 
drapery, the posture of the figure and of the limbs must 
uniformly be consulted, they must accord, or there can 
be no other effect than stiffness in the person repre- 
sented. Drapery gently agitated by the wind, in run- 
ning or flying figures, has a good effect when it is made 
to flow in one direction, and not too much extended ; 
the lights require great care, and should be directed on 
the most rotund parts, and those must not be crossed 


by dark shade, or the limbs or body so treated will 
appear broken, 

Drawing of Landscapes. 

The science of perspective is so absolutely necessary 
in this branch of the art, that it must be acquired be- 
fore the student attempts to copy a drawing or print ; 
for although the heights of trees, bushes, hills, &c. &c. 
vary greatly,yet there is a general and palpable declen- 
sion in the relative proportions as they retire from the 
eye ; besides, if a building intervenes, the want of 
truth in this particular becomes instantly obvious. 

When the student is master of perspective (of which 
we shall treat in another part of our volume) he may 
proceed to copy good drawings either with black-lead 
pencils or chalk, according to the paper he adopts ; but 
he should prefer those only that give a clear and dis- 
tinct idea of the outline, as he cannot possibly compre- 
hend the forms of objects which are mixed and lost in 
others, merely to bring the light into a focus for brilli- 
ant effect ; it would not be amiss at the same time to 
draw detached objects, till their forms are perfectly and 
correctly obtained ; having accomplished this point 
groupes will be more easily understood and copied. 
Shading with the above materials must be governed by 
the objects drawn from : in using Indian ink, the stu- 
dent should lay on the colour exceeding faint next the 
light, and deepen the shade gradually ; and we would 
recommend him to confine himself to it till a good 
judge of his merit pronounces he may attempt colour- 
ing ; as he should remember his aim is to become a 
skilful artist by regular progression, and not a mere 


gaudy colourist, to entrap vulgar applause. When the 
student arrives at this most difficult and arduous 
branch of the art, he cannot too attentively consult the 
best specimens of colouring within his reach, remark- 
ing how the tints of the air in the zenith are generally 
treated, which is of a purer blue than on the horizon, 
where the vapours, continually floating near the earth, 
become more visible, and are tinged with yellow or 
purple, according to the position of the sun, and their 
form, when condensed and raised in clouds, which par- 
take of the same tints from the same cause, their tran- 
sparency in some parts, their dazzling light, reflections, 
and deep shades, in others. He will perceive that the 
experienced artist, sensible of the existence of moisture 
in the air between him and the remotest objects, has 
shewn very distant hills obscured by blue, or faintly 
purple vapours, which becoming less dense in nearer 
objects, are gradually made more perfect, till those in 
the front of the drawing, exhibit a decided boundary, 
dad clearly defined lights and shades. Contrary to Sir 
Isaac Newton's opinion, that the rays of the sun con- 
tained seven primitive colours, more modern philoso- 
phers insist there are but three, blue, red, and yellow; 
those must therefore serve as the grand basis in colour- 
ing, but as nature never glares in fierce tints, they 
should be tempered according to her dictates, and for 
the causes mentioned above. No one colour should 
prevail in a good landscape, neither should they be 
disposed in the prismatic form, but all parts ought to 
harmonize and give a pleasing aggregate. The colour- 
ing of objects in the fore-ground requires particular 
attention, as neither a wall, a bank, or a tree presents 


one uniform tint ; on the contrary, the stones, or bricks, 
of which the first is composed, always differ from each 
other in colour; besides, the tricklmg^>f dews, the ve- 
getation of different species of moss, the corroding 
effects of time and the weather, produce characteristic 
effects extremely picturesque: this is equally observable 
on wood; and the bark of trees, and banks, present 
numerous tints in the sand, clay, and stones of which 
they are composed, exclusive of the variety of plants 
scattered on their surface. The walls of castles and of 
monasteries adorned with beautiful masses of ivy, the 
north sides of houses in damp situations, and trees, are 
excellent subjects for contemplation in this particular ; 
indeed every substance in a state of decay seems to in- 
vite representation, by the beautiful properties they as- 
sume, which are still further observable as they be- 
come useless to the possessor. The peasant's house, in 
this instance, in complete ruins, with fallen bricks, cj: 
broken plaistered sides, and almost without thatch, is 
more inviting to the artist than all the splendor of 
Grecian focades and magnificent porticos. In the 
same way an old worn-out cart horse is a much fitter 
animal to draw from, and a finer subject for the pen- 
cil, than a sleek and clean poney; and an ass with a 
rough coat, is more picturesque than the same animal 
kept in nicer order. 

In composing a drawing, the best parts of various 
views from nature should be selected, always remem- 
bering that those parts should never resemble each 
other, and that none of their lines should be parallel ; 
if nothing more is intended than a good composition 
such are to be obtained from reality, by merely correct- 


ing little errors committed by nature; for instance, a 
stream of water may flow in nearly a straight line 
through a most beautiful district, yet thus represented, 
it would have a bad effect in the drawing; equally dis- 
agreeable are two or three hills of similar outlines 
ranged beyond each other ; to turn the stream into a 
more serpentine form, or change the outlines of the 
hills, will therefore be no deviation from propriety : it 
is far otherwise in making a view of any particular 
place for topographical purposes ; in that case, the 
object to be attained is not an unexceptionable draw- 
ing, but a true representation even of deformity. 

The best colours are those used in boxes, properly 
mixed with gum, which rubbed on a tile, and diluted 
with water in the brush, flow readily, and are very clear. 

Nothing will contribute more towards obtaining cor- 
rectness in drawing than a free and unembarrassed 
conduct of the black-lead pencil and port-crayon,which 
should not be held too near the points, nor should the 
rule and compasses be employed, except in making 
admeasurements and drawings of architecture; when 
copying from any given subject, itwill greatly expedite 
the progress to imagine the picture or drawing divided 
into squares, and the paper in an equal number; by 
this means the true situation of each figure, within 
these imaginary squares, may be transferred to the 
same imaginary squares on the paper. A more me- 
chanical method to copy in the same size as the ori- 
ginal, or to reduce or enlarge the copy, is to draw real 
lines across each, forming an equal number of exact 
squares, and numbering them throughout so as to cor- 
respond : threads stretched across a picture instead of 


lines must be less injurious to it, and ought to be pre- 

The pentegraph is an useful instrument, invented 
for enlarging or reducing the outlines of pictures, 
drawings, prints, or plans, or copying them of the ori- 
ginal size. In drawing from nature, much circum- 
spection should be used in chusing the spot whence 
the view is to be seen, as a few feet or yards often 
makes an essential difference in the beauty of the 
groupes and individual objects; a' gentle elevation 
should be preferred, whence the eye may embrace a 
large circumference ; then fixing upon some certain 
points, imagine several perpendicular lines, and mark- 
ing an equal number on the paper, let the horizontal 
line intersect them, the objects to be represented 
are thus obtained as in the method of copying by 
squares. Every peculiarity of the landscape must be 
caught with avidity, the declination of lines, the appa- 
rent lessening of objects, the species of trees, the ten- 
dency of the broken fragments on the edges of clouds, 
and the movements of the foliage and branches by 
the wind ; the seasons should also be observed, as the 
lights vary greatly with them, and the colouring essen- 
tially. Raging billows, waterfalls, and clouds dis- 
charging rain, offer many particulars for minute ob- 
servation, and the shadows of passing clouds have a 
beautiful effect when chasing each other over the sides 
of mountains, or are spread like a veil over a large 
tract of country. In making the lights and shades of 
a landscape, it must never be forgotten, that whatever 
place the sun may be in, the light can fall but one 
way, and that all the difference possible in the shades 
c 2 


are their degrees of strength between morning, even- 
ing, and noon, and their strength at either extreme of 
the day compared with the meridian, as they are very 
short at. that period, and often intermixed with strong 
reflected light, experienced artists alway prefer morn- 
ing and evening, as productive of those golden and 
purple tints which catch upon objects half buried in 
deep shadow, and give a beautiful effect to the land- 
scape. Claude Lorrain was almost the only painter 
who thought himself equal to representing the sun, 
and the silvery effect of his beams, upon water : that 
he succeeded to admiration must be acknowledged, but 
it is extremely doubtful whether his pictures will ever 
be equalled : it is, however, certain, that the attempt 
has failed in every modern instance. As one step to- 
wards imitating the brilliancy of the orb of day, it has 
been the custom to suppose the sun just beyond the 
boundary of the picture, by making the sky clear and 
light on that side, and gradually fading thence through 
the landscape. As this method is founded upon just 
principles, the young artist may safely adopt it, though 
not as an indispensable rule ; for the light breaking 
through clouds, and luminating the centre or front of 
a view, has an excellent effect, especially if that spot 
is animated by human figures or cattle. When a build- 
ing, whether a modern or ancient edifice, is the prin- 
cipal object, the light should be thrown decidedly on 
it, though that on the side of clouds next to the sun 
must be the brightest. But as that may be considered 
too attractive of the attention from the building, the 
atmosphere ought to be rather dark and tempestuous : 
because, if there are few clouds, the light distributed 


on the globules of moisture floating in the air will 
overpower even the direct rays of the sun on an opaque 
body. In shading circular bodies, the light side ought 
not to cut hard upon the next object, but be softened 
into it in a slight degree; the brightest light succeeds, 
then the shading gradually deepens about three quar- 
ters through, after which the extremity catches a re- 
flected light, and the outline blends with the tint be- 
hind it; in the same manner foliage, the edges of 
hills, &c. should combine with the light or shade be- 
hind them. In representing the angles of houses, the 
strongest shades must be next the light, whence they 
decline and become lighter : in this case, and in every 
particular relating to architecture, it will be most pro- 
per to draw from the works of the best masters, and 
finally from reality, as it is almost impossible to de- 
scribe the consequences of every little light and shade 
projected from the ornaments. Contrast, when art- 
fully contrived, is the true secret of producing relief: 
for instance, a plain light surface will not relieve from 
the paper; but if the same surface has part of its depth 
shaded, as if placed obliquely, it assumes solidity; 
thus, if two deeply darkened objects' are connected, 
they will appear on the same line ; but if a faint light, 
derived by reflection from some neighbouring sub- 
stance, is thrown upon the most distant, it will detach 
itself, and give an idea of separation from the other : 
hence it follows, thatshade should always be opposed 
to light throughout a landscape, but in that judicious 
manner pointed out by nature, whose operations in 
this case must be closely examined and ascertained, 
as they are often so faintly and capriciously performed 
c 3 


as to elude an eye unaccustomed to accurate observa- 
tion : let it be remembered, besides, that her contrasts 
are never violent and glaring, ever declining in force 
with the distance of the objects ; those in the front of 
a view require the most attention, as every part being 
near, they become perfectly distinct, and must be re- 
presented with the strongest colours suited to the 

There are some other rules proper in drawing : par- 
ticular, if a flower is to be copied from nature, it is 
usual to begin with the centre, proceeding thence with 
the leaves composing it to the extremities, which me- 
thod enables the student to lay them one above ano- 
ther in the correct and beautiful manner in which they 
are disposed by the Great Author of all things. In 
colouring those fascinating objects, infinite skill is re- 
quired in blending their tints so as to keep each clear 
and bright. In observing birds, it will be found that 
the feathers of the head are smallest, whence they 
proceed to the tail in five ranges. In this instance, 
and in drawing animals, every precaution cannot be 
too closely attended to, which will give their true 


Having completed the necessary instructions for 
drawing, by the improvement of a native genius, or in- 
clination for the study of the fine arts, which is known 
to be inherent in some, and utterly unknown to the 


majority of mankind, we shall next notice what may be 
termed Mechanical Drawing, which branch of the art 
is indispensable in many pursuits, and amusing to 
all whose time might be less profitably employed. To 
draw maps, plans, and figures of new inventions well, 
geometry and perspective must be thoroughly under- 
stood,particularly if elevations and sections of buildings 
are attempted: to proceed regularly, the free use of the 
black pencil ought to be attained, after which the use 
of Indian ink, with a fine pen should be acquired, with 
a facility of drawing lines either with or without a 
ruler, particularly curves beyond the range of a small 
compass : to those are to be added the doctrines of light, 
shade, and reflection, and an easy, careless method of 
shading, which is readily accomplished if instruments 
of any kind are to be copied, as they may be placed in 
the most favourable light at pleasure. Taste is out of 
the question in this branch of the art, merely suited to 
the architect, the philosopher or mathematician, and 
the geographer. Young ladies of fortune, and persons 
fond of pleasant employment, may derive information 
from the following modes of proceeding in copying 1 , 
tracing, &c. &c. 

Tracing Paper 

Is readily made by taking a sheet of very thin silk, 
or other paper, and rubbing it over gently with some 
soft substance, filled with a mixture of equal parts of 
drying oil and oil of turpentine, which suspended and 
dried will be fit for use in a few days, or it maybe had 
at any of the colour shops. Lay this transparent mate- 
rial on the print or drawing to be transferred, and with 


a sharp black lead pencil trace the outlines exactly as 
they appear through the paper. If more permanent or 
stronger lines are wished, ink mixed with ox-gall will 
be necessary to make it adhere to the oiled surface. 

Tracing against the Light. 

There are two methods : one to lay the print, &c- 
flat against a pane of glass, with thin paper over it, 
when the lines appearing through it are to be followed 
by the lead: the other is more convenient, and con- 
sists of a frame inclosing a square glass, supported 
by legs, on which the paper is laid as before, and a can- 
dle placed behind the glass. A pen and ink may be 
used in this manner, but they cannot in the former 

Another Method of using Transparent Paper* 
Take a piece of the size required, and rub it equally 
over on one side with black lead reduced to a powder, 
till the surface will not readily soil a finger, then lay a 
piece of white paper with the blacked paper, and leaded 
side next to it, under the print, and securing them firm- 
ly together with pins at the corners, proceed to trace 
the outlines with a blunt point, and some degree of 
pressure, which will transfer the lead to the clean paper 
precisely in the direction the point passed over the 
print; this maybe corrected with the black-lead pencil, 
and cleansed of any soil by the crumbs of stale bread. 

Copying Drawings, Sf-c. withjixed materials. 
Rub a thin piece of paper thoroughly and equally 
with fresh butter, and after drying it well by a fire 


cover it with black lead, as before mentioned, or with 
'carmine, lamp-black, or blue-bice, on the side which 
received the butter. When the operation has so far 
succeeded, as that the colour will not adhere to any 
substance passed over it, lay the coloured surface on 
white paper, the print on it, and trace the subject 
through with a point as above. 

To tranfer any Impression with Vermillion. 
Mix the colour with linseed oil in a state sufficiently 
fluid to flow from the point of a pen, with which let 
every line of the print be accurately traced; then wet 
the back of it, and turning the face downwards on 
clean white dry paper, place other paper on the back 
and gently rub or press it, till it may be supposed the 
red lines are completely transferred to the pager from 
the print. 

Writing, or outlines of prints, may be conveyed ex- 
actly by the following method. Mix fine vermillion 
with water, of the same fluidity as ink, and putting 
it into a vessel containing cotton, use it with a pen in 
tracing over the subject, making the lines of the same 
breadth as the original; then wet white paper with 
gum-water spread by a sponge, and lay the ver- 
million tracing on it gently, pressing every part till 
the process is complete: when the print is withdrawn 
the gum will retain the vermillion, and after it is dried 
they will become inseparable. This mode, except the 
um and paper, is used by engravers, who secure the 
lines by wax on their copperplates. 

c 5 


There are numerous beauties in the skeletons or 
fibres of leaves; and it is at least a pleasing-, if not an 
useful employment to collect all, or a part of their va- 
rieties, which may be done with decisive accuracy as 

To obtain the true shape andjibres of a Leaf. 

Rub the back of it gently with any hard substance, 
so as to bruise the fibres, then apply a small quantity of 
linseed oil to their edges ; after which press the leaf on 
white paper, and, upon removing it, a perfectly cor- 
rect representation of every ramification will appear, 
and the whole may be coloured from the original. 

Another way, which may be called printing of a leaf. 
This is effected by carefully touching the fibres with 
one of those balls lightly covered with ink, used by 
printers, and impressing it on wet paper. This is done 
to most advantage by a round stick covered with 
woolen cloth, rolled backwards and forwards over the 
paper and leaf. 

A substitute may be adopted by rubbing and bruising 
the leaf, oiling it as before, and scattering powdered 
black-lead, charcoal, or the powder of burnt cork on it, 
and pressing it on paper. Other colours may be used, 
prepared with butter or oil, of which blue-bice is the 
best, as it serves as a ground for colouring the leaf 
from nature. The back of the leaf must be exclu- 
sively preferred, as the fibres project on that side only. 


Is a process well calculated for multiplying of pat- 
terns, for working in muslin, &c.: when a print or 


drawing is to be copied in this way, it must be placed 
upon a sheet of white paper, and the outline pricked 
though both with a pin or needle ; the pierced sheet 
may then be laid on a second clean one, and a muslin 
bag of powdered charcoal shaken or rubbed over it, 
when, upon removing the former, the latter will be 
found a perfect copy. 

The Camera Obscura. 

The Camera Obscura makes the most pleasing repre- 
sentation of nature hitherto discovered,by which theex- 
ternal objects are reflected on any plane within the 
chamber in the liveliest colours, and every leaf and 
animal appear in motion; but unfortunately in are- 
versed position. The constructing of a camera obscura 
is a very simple operation: close all the windows of an 
apartment, and leave a single circular aperture suited 
for the reception of a convex or plane convex lens in the 
shutter of that which faces the greatest variety of land- 
scape; then place any smooth white surface before it, 
at the proper distance, which is to be determined upon 
the same principle as the movement of the glasses of 
a telescope, and every portipn of the view will be ex- 
hibited on it. If the least ray of light makes its way 
through any other means, the effect will be destroyed ; 
and it will be heightened if the atmosphere is clear and 
the sun shines bright. 

The Portable Camera Obscura 

Resembles a wooden box or chest, furnished with a 
circular or angular projection in the middle, opening 
from it, and to be directed towards the landscape; be- 
c 6 


yond this aperture, and within the box, is placed a 
small mirror inclined to an angle of 45 degrees, serving 
to reflect the exterior rays on a convex lens set in a 
tube, and the light streaming from this will convey the 
true forms and colours of the landscape to a paper situ- 
ated at the proper distance to receive them ; this beau- 
tiful picture is viewed through an oblong aperture, and 
may be copied with equal facility and advantage : in- 
deed the most experienced artist may obtain hints from 
the camera obscura, which might escape his notice in 
drawing directly from reality. The literally darkened 
chamber furnishes the means of improvement, though 
some little contrivance is necessary to use them conve- 
niently, and obviate the unpleasant circumstances at- 
tending the drawing of reversed objects ; it may, how- 
ever, be recollected, that anything drawn in this posi- 
tion will become right on turning the paper; or the 
person desirous of so doing may place the paper on 
some low article of furniture, and standing over it 
view every part in its proper state ; but the portable 
camera obscura, being- expressly intended for making 
of correct drawings, should be preferred, as it affords a 
horizontal plane for the hand to rest on. conveniently. 



PAINTING is the art of representing to the eyes, 
by means of figures and colours, every object in nature 
that is discernable by the sight; and of sometimes 
expressing, according to the principles of physiognomy 
and by the attitudes of the body, the various emotions 
of the mind. A smooth surface, by means of lines 
and colours, represents objects in a state of projection; 
and may represent them in the most pleasant dress, 
and in a manner most capable of enchanting the 
senses. Still farther the objects which delight us by 
their animation and lively colours, speak to the soul, 
by giving us the image of what we hold most dear, or 
by indicating an action which inspires us with a taste 
for innocent pleasures, with courage, and with elevated 
sentiments, Such is the definition, and such are the 
effects of painting. 

By an admirable effort of human genius, painting 
offers to our eyes every thing which is most valuable 
in the universe. Its empire extends over every age 
and country. It presents to us the heroic deeds of 
ancient times as well as the facts in which we are 
more conversant, and distant objects, as well as those 
which we daily see. In this respect it may be consi- 
dered as a supplement to nature, which gives us only 
a view of present objects. 


The painter who invents, composes, and colours 
conceptions which are only agreeable, and which 
speak merely to the eye of the spectator, may be 
reckoned to possess the first merit in the style of 
embellishment and decoration. 

The painter who is distinguished for noble and pro- 
found conceptions; who, by means of a perfect deline- 
ation, and colours more capable of fixing the atten- 
tion and dazzling the eye, conveys to the spectators 
the sentiments with which he himself was inspired : 
who animates them with his genius, and makes a 
lasting impression on their minds; this artist is a 
poet, and worthy to share even in the glories of 

It is in forming this great idea of his art that the 
painter becomes himself great. 

But if he seek only to please or astonish by the 
illusions of colours, he must rest contented with the 
secondary merit of flattering the eye with the variety 
and opposition of tints, or of making an industrious 
assemblage of a great multiplicity of objects. It is 
in painting as it is in poetry. The man who clothes 
trivial or common ideas in verse, exercises the profes- 
sion of twisting syllables into a certain measure. The 
poet who clothes in good verse ideas and sentiments 
that are merely agreeable, professes an agreeable art. 
But he who, by the magic of verse, of ideas, of im- 
agery, or of colours, adds sublimity to the sublime 
objects of nature, is a great poet and a great painter. 
The painter and statuary, who excel in their profes- 
sions, deserve all the respect due to genius ; they are 
of the number of those men whom nature, sparing of 


her best gifts, grants but occasionally to the inhabi- 
tants of the earth. If they are sublime, they elevate 
the human race ; if they are agreeable only, they ex- 
cite those sweet sensations necessary to our happi- 

In laying before our readers a succinct view of this 
noble art, we shall, first, give an account of the schools 
and of the different merits of painters, and then pro- 
ceed to lay down the principles of the art. 


A SCHOOL, in the fine arts, denominates a class of 
artists who have learned their art from a certain mas- 
ter, either by receiving his instructions, or by studying 
his works ; and who of consequence discover more or 
less of his manner, from the desire of imitation, or 
from the habit of adopting his principles. 

All the painters which Europe has produced since 
the renovation of the arts are classed under the fol- 
lowing schools : the school of Florence, the school of 
Rome, the school of Venice, the Lombard school, the 
French school, the German school, the Flemish school 
the Dutch school, and the English school. 

School of Florence. 

This school is remarkable for greatness ; for attitudes 
seemingly in motion; for a certain dark severity; for 
an expression of strength, by which grace perhaps is 
excluded ; and for a character of design approaching 
to the gigantic. The oroductions of this school may 


be considered as over charged; but it cannot be 
denied that they possess an ideal majesty, which ele- 
vates human nature above mortality. The Tuscan 
artists, satisfied with commanding the admiration 
seem to have considered the art of pleasing as be- 
neath their notice. 

This school has an indisputable title to the venera- 
tion of all the lovers of the fine arts, as the first in 
Italy which cultivated them. 

Painting which had languished from the destruction 
of the Roman empire, was revived by Cimabue, born 
of a noble family in Florence in the year 1240. This 
painter translated the poor remains of the art from a 
Greek artist or two into his own country. His works 
as may easily be imagined, were in a very ordinary 
style, but they received the applause and admiration 
of his fellow citizens ; and if Cimabue had not found 
admirers, Florence would not in all propability have 
been honoured with Michael Angelo. The number of 
painters became soon so considerable in Florence 
that in the year 1350 they established a society under 
the protection of St. Luke. 

Massolino, towards the beginning of the 15th cen- 
tuary, gave more grandeur to his figures, adjusted 
their dress better, and shed over them a kind of life 
and expression. He was surpassed by Massacio his 
pupil ; who first gave force, animation, and relievo to 
his works. 

Andrew Castagna was the first Florentine who 
painted in oil. But Leonardo da Vinci and Michael 
Angelo, contemporary painters, were the glory of the 
school of Florence. Michael Angelo was superior to 


Leonardo in grandeur, in boldness of conception, and 
in knowledge of design ; but Leonardo was superior 
to him in all the amiable parts of the art. Leonardo, 
possessed of a fine imagination, and full of sensibility, 
devoted himself in painting to express the affections 
of the soul ; and if, in this sublime branch of the art, 
he was afterwards surpassed by Raphael, he had at 
least the glory not only of exceeding all the painters 
who went before him, but of pursuing a path which 
none of them had attempted. His design was pure 
and neat, and not wholly destitute of greatness. He 
never went beyond nature, and he made a good choice 
of objects for imitation. 

Michael Angelo, less formed to experience sweet 
affections than vehement passions, sought in nature 
what the strength of man might accomplish, not that 
which constitutes beauty. He delighted in being 
great and terrible, more than in graceful attitudes. 
Well aco^iainted with anatomy, he knew more exact- 
ly than any other artist in what manner to express 
the joining of the bones of the body, and the office 
and insertion of the muscles ; but too eager to dis- 
play his knowledge of anatomy, he seems to have 
forgotten that the muscles are softened by the skin 
that covers them ; and that they are less visible in 
children, in women, and in young men, than in con- 
firmed and vigorous manhood. " In his figures (says 
Mengs) the articulations of the muscles are so easy 
and free, that they appear to be made for the attitude 
in which he represents them. The fleshy parts are 
too much rounded, and the muscles are in general too 
large and of too equal strength. You never perceive 


in his figures a muscle at rest ; and although he knew 
admirably well how to place them, their action is very 
frequently inconsistent with their situation." 

"He did not possess (says Sir Joshua Reynolds) so 
many delightful parts of the art as Raphael ; but those 
which he had acquired were of a more sublime nature. 
He saw in painting little more than what might be at- 
tained in sculpture ; and he confined it to exactness 
of form and the expression of passions." 

He informs us in one of his letters, that he modelled 
in earth or wax all the figures which he intended to 
paint. This method was familiar to the great painters 
of his time, and ought never to be abandoned. It 
appears, that in representing them in this manner in 
relievo, the painter can imitate them much more 
exactly than when they are drawn with a crayon or 
pencil on a plain surface. 

" Michael Angelo (continues Sir Joshua Reynolds) 
never attempted, the lesser elegancies and graces 
in the art. Vasari says, he never painted but one 
picture in oil ; and resolved never to paint another, 
saying it was an employment only fit for women and 

"If any man had a right to look down upon the 
lower accomplishments as beneath his attention, it 
was certainly Michael Angelo ; nor can it be thought 
strange, that such a mind should have slighted, or 
have been with-held from paying due attention 'to 
all those graces and embellishments of art which 
have diffused such lustre over the works of other 


Roman School. 

Ancient Rome, rich with the works brought from 
Greece^ or finished in its own bosom by Grecian 
artists, handed down in its ruins the remains of that 
glory to which it had been elevated. It was by the 
study of these remains that the modern artists were 
formed : they derived from them the knowledge of 
design, the beauty of exquisite form, greatness of style 
and justnesss of expression, carried to that length 
only which did affect the beauty of the figure. From 
them also they derived the principles of the art of 
drapery; and they followed these principles even while 
they made the drapery of modern paintings more large 
and flowing than what was practised by the ancient 
sculptors. The Roman school was altogether devoted 
to the principal parts of the art, to those which re- 
quire genius and vast conceptions ; and was no farther 
occupied with colours than what was necessary to es- 
tablish a difference between painting and sculpture, 
or rather between painting varied with colours and 
in claro-obscuro. 

At the head of this school is placed Raphael Sanzio, 
born at Urbino, in 1483. 

In the early part of his life he had accustomed him- 
self to copy nature with great exactness, but without 
being solicitous about the choice, or perhaps ignorant 
that any choice was necessary. When he saw the 
works of Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo,they 
gave to his genius a new direction ; he perceived that 
there was something more in the art of painting than 
a simple imitation of truth. It was at Rome, in the 


works of the ancients, that he found models of ideal 
beauty which he afterwards imitated. 

His design is admirable he excelled in represent- 
ing the character of philosophers, apostles, and other 
figures of that kind. The Greeks were superior to 
him in ideal figures, but if he did not succeed in em- 
bellishing nature in the same high degree, he saw, at 
least, and imitated her in whatever was expressive 
and beautiful. The Greeks (says Mengs,) sailed with 
majesty between earth and heaven ; Raphael walked 
with propriety on the earth. 

Composition is in general (says the same author) of 
two kinds ; Raphael's is the expressive kind ; the other 
theatrical or picturesque, which consists of an agree- 
able disposition of the figures. Lanfranco was the 
inventor of the last, and after him Pietro de Cortona. 
The preference is given to the genius of Raphael, be- 
cause reason presided over all his works, or at least 
the greatest part of them. He never indulged himself 
in common ideas, nor ever suffered his accessary fi- 
gures to turn the attention from the principal object 
of the piece. 

The excellency of Raphael, lay in the propriety, 
beauty, and majesty of his characters ; his judicious 
contrivance of composition, correctness of drawing, 
purity of taste, and the skilful display of other men's 
conceptions to his own purpose. 

Venetian School. 

The school of Venice is the child of nature. The 
Venetian painters, not having under their eyes, like the 
Romans, the remains of antiquity, were destitute of 


the means of forming a just idea of the beauty of forms 
and of expression ; they copied, without choice, the 
forms of nature, but were chiefly delighted with the 
beauties which presented themselves in the mixture 
and variety of colours. Colouring was their chief 
object; and they endeavoured by the agreement and 
opposition of colours, and by the contrast of light and 
shade, to produce a vigorous effect, to demand and 
fix the attention. In this they succeeded. 

Dominico, who was the second Italian artist who 
painted in oil, had educated, before he quitted Venice, 
Giacomo Bellino, who had two sons, Gentile and 
Giovanni, both of whom were painters; the latter 
contributed much to the progress of his art in painting 
constantly in oil and after nature. Giorgione and 
Titian, his scholars, are considered as the founders 
of the Venetian school. 

Giorgione distinguished himself by a better taste in 
designing than his master; but he chiefly surpassed 
him in colouring. He died in his 32d year. 

Taziano Vecelli, better known by the name ofTitian, 
was instructed in the school of Bellino, to copy nature 
in the most servile manner; but when he had seen the 
works of Giorgoine, he began to study the ideal in 
colouring. The truth of history is not to be expected 
in his paintings or in those of the artists of the same 
school. He paid little attention to the consistence of 
scene, to the costume, to expression adapted to the 
subject; or, finally, to the accommodation of parts 
which characterise the works of those who have studied 
the ancients. 

The artists of the Florentine and Roman schools 


painted most commonly in water-colours, or in fresco; 
and, instead of nature, they finished their works from 
their first sketches. Titian painted in oil, and finished 
from the objects in nature ; and this practice, joined 
to exquisite talents, gave the greatest truth to his 
colours. His being a portrait painter was also of 
advantage to him as a colourist. In this department 
he was accustomed to the colours of nature in carna- 
tions and draperies. 

He was a landscape painter ; and here he also took 
the colours from nature. 

Titian has, in general, little expression in his pic- 
tures ; and he sometimes introduces figures which 
augment the coldness of the piece ; for if it be true 
that heads, even in historical painting, ought to be 
studied from nature, it is true also that individual 
nature should not be presented, but one general and 
ideal. The painter fails in the effect, which he ought 
to produce, if, when he represents Achilles, Hector, 
and Csesar, his personages are familiar to our obserr 
vat ion. 

Lombard School. 

The distinguishing characteristics of this school are 
grace ; an agreeable taste for design, without great 
correction; a mellowness of pencil; and a beautiful 
mixture of colours. 

Antonio Allegri, called Corregio,was the father and 
greatest ornament of this school ; he began by imitat- 
ing nature alone, but as he was chiefly delighted with 
the graceful he was careful to purify his design : he 
made his figures elegant and large; and varied his out- 


lines by frequent undulations; but was not always 
pure and correct, though bold in his conceptions. 

Corregio painted in oil, and gave the greatest deli- 
cacy and sweetness to his figures ; as his character led 
him to cultivate the agreeable, his pictures were not 
only pleasing but were also captivating. Heearefully 
sought transparent colours to represent shades con- 
formable to nature, and adopted a manner of glazing 
which actually rendered his shadows more obscure. 
It is chiefly in this that he deserves to be imitated ; for 
his lights are too clear, and somewhat heavy ; and his 
fleshy parts are not sufficiently transparent. Harmony 
and grace are connected together; and on this account 
Corregio is excellent also in harmony. As the delicacy 
of his taste suffered him not to employ strong oppo- 
sitions, he naturally became a great master in this 
part, which chiefly consists of easy gradations from 
one extreme to another. A delicate taste in colours, a 
perfect knowledge of the claro obscura, the art of unit- 
ing light to light, and shade to shade, together with 
that of detaching objects from the ground; inimitable, 
grave and perfect harmony, were the qualities which 
distinguished Corregio from all painters and placed 
him near the head of his profession. 

The Carracci, Lewis, Augustin and Annibal, formed 
what is called the second Lombard school, which is 
frequently distinguished by the name of the school of 

Lewis was the master of the other two; he had 
studied the works of Titian and Paolo Veronese, of 
Andrea del Sarto, of Corregio, and of Julia Romano; 
but he chiefly endeavoured to imitate the manner of 


Corregio. Annibal fluctuated between Corregio and 
Titian. Augustin, their rival in painting, had his mind 
cultivated by learning, and devoted part of his time 
to poetry, music, and manly exercises. 

These three painters often employed their talents 
upon the same work; and their united labours seemed 
to be animated with the same spirit. 

They established an academy at Bologna, called 
1'Academia degli Desiderosi ; but it was afterwards 
known by the name of the Academy of the Carracci. 
In this school was taught the art of constructing 
models, perspective, and anatomy ; lessons were given 
on the beautiful proportions of nature, on the best 
manner of using colours, and on the principles of light 
and shade. The academy separated on Annibal's going 
to Rome to adorn the gallery of the cardinal Farnese. 

The works of the Carracci are often from the resem- 
blance of their manner, confounded together; never- 
theless, each of them has a decided character distinct 
from the other two. Lewis had less fire, but more 
grace and grandeur; Augustin had more spirit in his 
conception, and more pleasantness in his execution. 
Annibal is characterized by boldness, by a design 
more profound, a more happy expression, and an ex- 
ecution more solid. 

Lodovico Carracci (says Sir Joshua Reynolds) ap- 
pears to me to approach nearest to perfection; his un- 
affected breadth of light and shadow, the simplicity of 
colouring, which holding its proper rank, does not 
draw asicle the least part of the attention from the 
subject; and the solemn effect of that twilight which 
seems diffused over his pictures, appears to me to 


correspond with grave and dignified subjects, better 
than the more artificial brillancy of sunshine which 
enlightens the pictures of Titian. 

Annibal is esteemed by the best judges as a model 
for beauty and design. Those who blame him for 
becoming less a colourist at Rome than he was at 
Bologna, ought to recollect that it is his performances 
at Rome which have chiefly secured his reputation. 
Severe critics have maintained, that his design is too 
little varied in the figures ; that he excels only in male 
beauty, and that in imitating ancient statues, he 
excites some resemblance, but without arriving at 
that sublimity of ideas and of stile, which characterise 
the ancients. 

The success of Annibal, and the reputation which 
he acquired, have been pernicious to the art. His suc- 
cessors, deluded by these considerations, have made 
him the object of their imitation, without ascending 
to the sources from which he derived his knowledge, 
and which they never could equal. The result has 
been, that instead of becoming equal to Annibal, they 
have often copied his imperfections. 

French School. 

This school has varied so much under different 
masters, that it is difficult to characterise it. Some 
of its artists have been formed on the Florentine and 
Lombard manner; others, on the Roman jothers on 
the Venetian; and a few have distinguished themselves 
by a manner which may be called their own. In speak- 
ing in general terms of this school, it appears to have 
no peculiar character; and it can only be distinguished 


by its aptitude to imitate easily any impression ; and 
it may be added, speaking still in general terms, that 
it unites in a moderate degree the different parts of 
the art, without excelling in any one of them. 

It is equally difficult to determine the progress of 
painting in France. Miniature painting, and painting 
on glass, were early cultivated in that country; and 
in these two kinds, the Italians had often recourse to 
French artists. 

Cousin, a painter on glass, and portrait painter, was 
the first who established any kind of reputation in 
France, he was correct, but possessed very little 
elegance of design. Painting, for some time encou- 
raged by Francis the First, fell into a state of langour, 
from which it was not recovered till the Reign of 
Louis XIII. Jacques Blanchard, formed in the Vene- 
tian school, and called the French Titian, flourished 
about this period ; but as he left no pupils to perpe- 
tuate his manner, he must be regarded as a single good 
artist, and not as a founder of the French school. 

In the same manner Poussin, whom they call the 
Raphael of Fiance, educated no pupils, and formed no 
school. His stile and manner of painting, are des- 
cribed by Sir Joshua Reynolds as simple, careful, pure 
and correct. No works of any modern have so much 
the air of antique painting, as those of Poussin. His 
best performances have a certain dryness of manner, 
which seems perfectly correspondent to the ancient 
simplicity that distinguishes his stile. In the latter 
part of his life he changed from this manner into one 
much softer and richer, where there is a greater union 
between the figures and the ground. His favourite 


subjects were ancient fables ; and no painter was erer 
better qualified to paint such subjects, as he was emi- 
nently skilled in the knowledge of the ceremonies, 
customs, and habits of the ancients ; and well ac- 
quainted with the different characters which those 
who invented them gave their allegorical figures. 

Poussin more admired than imitated, had no man- 
ner of influence in forming the French school. Simon 
Vouet had this honour, because his pupils, in the happy 
age of the arts in France, conferred on it the greatest 
splendour. Vouet was a man of distinguished abilities; 
but the school which he erected would have had no 
continuance, if his scholars had pursued his manner of 
painting. He had a kind of grandeur and facility ; 
but his design was false with regard to colours, and 
without any idea of expression. He had the merit of 
destroying the insipid taste which reigned in France, 
and pointing the way to a better. 

If Vouet laid the foundation of the French school, 
Le Brun finished the edifice. He had a noble concep- 
tion, and a fruitful imagination ; on no occasion was 
he inferior to the vast compositions he undertook. 
Few painters have united a greater number of essen- 
tial qualities and accessories of the art : he drew well, 
but his design was far from being so elegant as that of 
Raphael, or so pure as that of Domenichino ; and it 
was less lively than that of Annibal Carracci, whom he 
had taken as a model. In drapery he followed the 
Roman school; but in this part he was not equal to the 
painter of Urbino. He had studied the expression of 
the affections of the soul ; but after observing the ge- 
neral characters, and establishing the principal traits 
D 2 


of expression, he thought he had reached the whole 
extent of this subject which is so infinitely extended. 
He was delighted with great compositions ; and he 
gave them life, animation, and variety; but he wanted 
the vigour and inspiration of Raphael. His composi- 
tions are founded on philosophical principles ; but 
those of Raphael are created. Le Brun thought well; 
Raphael, Poussin, and Le Seur thought most pro- 
foundly. Le Brun had elevation, but he was not 
elevated, like Raphael, to the sublime. 

In colouring, Le Brun did not follow the painters 
of the Venetian school. The sweet attractions, and 
strong and solid colours of the schools of Rome and 
Lombardy, seem rather to have been the object of his 
imitation ; and from them also he learned an easy, 
agreeable, and bold management of the pencil. 

Eustach le Sueur was the cotemporary and rival of 
Le Brun, and no painter approached nearer to Raphael 
in the art of drapery, or in disposing the folds in the 
most artful and the noblest manner. His design was 
in general more slender than that of Raphael, but, like 
his, it was formed on the model of the ancients. Like 
Raphael he represented with art and precision the afr 
fections of the soul; like him he varied the hair of the 
head, according to the condition, the age, and the 
character of his personages ; and, like him, he made 
the different parts of every figure contribute to the 
general effect. His intention in composing was to ex- 
press his subject, not to make shining contrasts or 
beautiful groupes or figures, not to astonish and be- 
witch the spectator by the deceitful pomp of a thea- 
trical scene, or the splendour of the great machine, 


His tones are delicate, his tints harmonious, and his 
colours though not so attractive as those of the 
schools of Venice and Flanders, are yet engaging. 
They steal peaceably on the soul, and fix it, without 
distraction on the parts of the art, superior to that 
of colouring. 

If Le Sueur had lived longer, or if, like Le Brun, he 
had been employed under a court, fond of the arts and 
of learning, to execute the great works of the age, the 
French school would have adopted a different and a 
better manner. The noble beauty of his heads, the 
simple majesty of his draperies, the lightness of his 
design, the propriety of his expression and attitudes, 
and the simplicity of his general disposition would 
have formed the character of this school. The deceit- 
ful pomp of theatrical decoration would have been 
more lately introduced, or perhaps would never have 
appeared, and Paris might have been the counter 
part of Rome. 

But as Le Brun, by an accidental concurrence of fa- 
vourable circumstances, was the fashionable painter,to 
be employed or rewarded, it was necessary to imitate 
his manner ; and as his imitators possessed not his 
genius, his faults became not only current but more 

The French school not long ago changed its princi- 
ples; and, if they follow the road which they have 
marked out, for themselves, they have the chance of 
becoming the most rigid observers of the law imposed 
on the Greek artists. 

The Count de Caylus, pupil of Buchardon, who by 
bk rank and fortune had the means of encouraging 


the imitators of the ancients, and of the masters of 
the 15th century; first formed the design of restoring 
a pure taste to the art of painting. He was seconded 
by the talents of M. Vien, an artist who had only oc- 
casion to have his lessons and his examples laid before 

In this manner commenced a revolution, so much 
the more wonderful, as it was scarcely ever known that 
any nation substituted a system of simple and rigid ex- 
cellence in place of false and glittering taste. The his- 
tory of all nations, on the contrary, discovers a 
gradual progress from a rude beginning to perfection 
and afterwards to a irremediable decay. The French 
have the prospect of stopping short in this ordinary 
course. They have begun in a manner which pro- 
mises success, and the best consequence may be ex- 
pected from the study of those masterpieces of ancient 
art with which the capital of the French Republic is 
ornamented, and which, to the honour of the govern- 
ment, are open to the inspection of every one. It is 
almost needless to mention that these invaluable works 
are the most capital productions of art, which were 
formerly at Florence, Rome, Turin, Naples, and 
the cities in the Austrian Netherlands. 

The German School. 

In Germany there can hardly be said to be a school, 
as it is a continuation of single artists, who derived 
their manner from different sources of originality and 
imitation. There were some German painters of emi- 
nence, when the art, emerging from its barbarous state, 
first began to be cultivated in Europe. As they were 


totally unacquainted with the ancients,and had scarcely 
access to the works of their contemporaries in Italy, 
they copied nature alone, with the exception of some- 
what of that stiffness, which forms the gothic manner. 
Bat this is by no means the case with their successors, 
part of whom were educated in Flanders, and part in 
Italy. But if Mengs or Deitrich, were comprehended 
in this school, there would be nothing peculiar to its 
manner discovered in their works. It is therefore 
necessary to confine our observations to the most 
ancient German painters, in whom the gothic stile is 

Albert Durer was the first German who corrected 
the bad taste of his countrymen. He excelled in en- 
graving as well as painting. His genius was fertile, 
his compositions varied, his thoughts ingenious, and 
his colours brilliant. His works though numerous 
were finished with great exactness ; but as he owed 
every thing to his genius, and as works of inferior me- 
rit were by the false taste of thetimes preferred to his, it 
was impossible for him altogether to avoid the faults 
of his predecessors. He is blamed for stiffness, and 
aridity in his outlines, for little taste or grandeur in his 
expression, for ignorance of the costume, of serial per- 
spective, and of gradation of colours ; but he had stu- 
died lineal perspective, architecture and fortification. 

John Holbein, nearly contemporary with Albert Du- 
rer, painted in oil and water-colours. He excelled 
chiefly in history, and in portrait painting. His co- 
lours are fresh and brilliant, and his works highly 
finished; but in his historical subjects, his draperies are 
not in so good taste as those of Albert Durer. 
D 4 


The Flemish School. 

The Flemish school is recommended to the lovers of 
the art by the discovery, or at least the first practice of 
oil in painting. It has been generally attributed to 
John Van Eyck, who was accustomed to varnish his 
distemper pictures wih a composition of oils, which 
was pleasing, on account of the lustre it gave them. 
In the course of his practice, he came to mix his co- 
lours with oil, instead of water, which he found ren- 
dered them brilliant without the trouble of varnishing. 
From this and subsequent experiments, arose the art 
of painting in oil, of which wonderful discovery 'Van 
Maudes gives a particular account; but the truth of it 
is now very much questioned ; and it is even proved 
that this method of painting was discovered long before 
the time of John Van Eyck. It is admitted that John 
and his brother Eubert, were the first who brought it 
into general practice, by shewing the excellence of 
which it was susceptible ; their own paintings having 
acquired, all over Europe, great reputation for the soft- 
ness and delicacy of their colours. The attention of 
the Italian painters was soon excited ; and Antonio de 
Massiny performed a journey into Flanders for the ex- 
press purpose of acquiring the confidence of John Van 
Eyck, and of discovering the secret. 

John of Bruges was the founder of painting as a 
profession in Flanders. Peter Paul Reubens was the 
founder of the art. This extraordinary person pro- 
duced an immense number of works. He excelled 
equally in historical, portrait and landscape painting; 
in fruits, flowers, and in animals. He invented, and 


executed with the greatest facility. The works of 
Reubens were destitute of that soft inspiration, produc- 
tive of sweet and pleasant effects so conspicuous in the 
works of Raphael ; but he possessed that sprightliness 
of genius and strength of mind, which are ever ready 
to burst forth in wonderful and astonishing effects* 
His figures appear to be the exact counterpart of his 
conceptions, and their creation nothing more than a 
simple act of the will. His chief merit consists in 
colouring ; though in this branch of the art he has not 
equalled Titian. He is the first among painters emi- 
nent for pomp and majesty; the first among those who 
speak to the eye ; and the power of the art is often by 
him carried almost to enchantment. 

Reubens (says Sir Joshua Reynolds) is a remarkable 
instance of the same mind, being seen in all the various 
parts of the art. The whole is so much of a piece, 
that one can scarce be brought to believe but that if 
any one of them had been more correct and perfect, his 
works would not be so complete as they appear. If we 
should allow a greater purity and correctness of draw- 
ing, his want of simplicity in composition, colouring, 
and drapery, would appear more gross. 

The Flemish school, of which Reubens is the great- 
est master, is remarkable for great brilliancy of colours, 
and the magic of the claro obscuro. To these may be 
joined a profound design, which is yet not founded on 
the most beautiful forms; a composition possessed of 
grandeur, a certain air of nobleness in the figures, 
strong, and natural expressions; in short a kind of na- 
tional beauty, whic is neither copied from the ancients, 



nor from the Roman or Lombard schools ; but which 
deserves to please, and is capable of pleasing. 

The Dutch School. 

To speak in general terms, and without regarding a 
great number of exceptions, the Dutch school carries 
none of the above qualities to great perfection, except 
that of colouring. Far from excelling in the beauty 
of heads and forms, they seem to delight in the exact 
imitation of the lowest and most ignoble. Their sub- 
jects are derived from the tavern, the smith's shop, and 
from the vulgar amusements of the rudest peasants 
The expressions are sufficiently marked ; but it is the 
expression of passions which debase instead of en- 
nobling human nature. 

It must be acknowledged, at the same time, that the 
Dutch painters have succeeded in several branches of 
the art. If they have chosen low subjects of imitation 
they have represented them with great exactness ; and 
truth must always please. If they have not succeeded 
in the most difficult parts of the claro obscuro, they, 
at least excel in the most striking, such as in light con- 
fined in a narrow space, night illuminated by the moon 
or by torches, and the light of a smith's forge. The 
Dutch understand the gradations of colours. They 
have no rivals in landscape painting, considered as the 
faithful representation of a particular scene ; but they 
are far from equalling Titian, Poussin, Claude Lorrian, 
&c. who have carried to the greatest perfection the 
ideal landscape ; and whose pictures, instead of being 
the topographical representation of certain places, are 
the combined result of every thing beautiful in their 


imagination or in nature. The Dutch distinguish 
themselves by their perspective, by their clouds, sea 
scenes, animals, fruits, flowers, and insects ; and they 
excel in miniature painting: in short, every thing which 
requires a faithful imitation, colour, and a nice pencil, 
is well executed by the Dutch painters. 

Holland has also produced history painters, as Octa- 
vius Van Been, and Vander Hilst, the rival of Van- 
dycke ; but it is not in the works of these artists that 
we find the character of the Dutch school. 

Neither is the origin of their style to be derived 
from the work of Lucas of Leyden ; though from the 
time he flourished, viz. about the end of the fifteenth 
century, he may be^considered as the partiarch of the 
Dutch school. Lucas painted in oil, in water-colurs, 
and on glass ; and the kinds of his painting were his- 
tory, landscape, and portrait. 

If miniature painting be considered as a character 
of the Dutch school, CorneliusPolembourg may be re- 
garded as the father of it. He possessed the colour, 
delicacy of touch, and disposition of the claro obscuro, 
which chiefly distinguished this school ; and if any 
thing is to be added, it is want of correctness in his 

But if the choice of low figures is its chief characte- 
ristic, this is to be found in the greatest perfection in 
the works of the celebrated Rembrandt Vanryn ; and it 
is the more offensive in this artist, as his compositions 
frequently required an opposite choice of figures. As 
his father was a miller, near Leyden, his education 
must altogether have depended on the exertion of great 
talents, and the study of nature. He copied the gro- 
D 6 


tesque figure of a Dutch peasant, or the servant of an 
inn with as much application as the greatest masters 
of Italy would have studied the Appollo of Belvidere, 
or the Venus de Medicis. This was not the manner of 
elevating himself to the noble conceptions of Raphael ; 
but it was acquiring the imitation of truth in vulgar 

Rembrandt (says Mr. Descamps) maybe compared 
to the great artists for colour, delicacy of touch, and 
claro obscuro. He delighted in great oppositions of 
light and shade ; and lie seems fo be particularly at- 
tentive to this branch of the art. His workshop was 
occasionally made dark, and he received the light by 
a hole, which fell as he choose to direct it to the 
place which he desired to be enlightened. His paint- 
ing is a kind of magic ; no artist knew better the ef- 
fects of different colours mingled together, nor could 
better distinguish those which did not agree, from 
those which did. He placed every tone in its situation 
with so much exactness and harmony, that he needed 
not to mix them, and so destroy what may be called 
the flower and freshness of the colours. 

Such is the power of genius, that Rembrandt, with 
all his faults, (and they are numerous),is placed among 
the greatest artists by Mr. Descamps, who had atten- 
tively examined his works, and was himself an artist. 
John de Laer, a miniature painter, and who made 
choice of his subjects from common life, deserves a 
distinguished place in the Dutch school. He painted 
hunting-scenes,the attacks of robbers, public festivals, 
landscapes, and sea views. He had a correct design 
and employed vigorous and lively colouring. 


. Van-0stade,although born at Lubeck,Gerrard Dow, 
Metzu, Miris, Wouverraans, Berghem, and the cele- 
brated painter of flowers Van Huysum, belong to the 
Dutch school. 

The greater part of the schools of which we have 
treated have no longer any existence. Italy alone had 
four schools, and there only remain a*it present a very 
few Italian artists known to foreigners. The school 
of Reubens is in vain sought for in Flanders. If the 
Dutch school still exists, it is not known beyond the 
precincts of Holland. Mengs, a German artist, has 
rendered himself famous in our days; but it was in 
Italy that he chiefly improved his talents, and exer- 
cised his art. M. Dietrich, another German has made 
himself known to strangers ; but two solitary artists 
da not form a school. 

The English School. 

This school has been formed in our time. It is con- 
nected with the Royal academy, in London, instituted 
in 1766: but although as a school it did not exist 
before that time, yet ever since the revival of the arts 
and the consequent encouragement given to them by 
the sovereigns of Europe, England has possessed por- 
trait painters of ability ; and perhaps it has been 
owing only to the remarkable partiality of the nation 
for this branch of the art, that the more noble one of 
history painting has been neglected. 

Hans Holbein is ranked by Du Piles among the 
German painters; yet he painted his most celebrated 
works in England. He was the first painter of eminence 
encouraged by Henry the Eighth, who excited by the 


fame which his contempories Francis I. and Charles V. 
had gained as patrons of the arts, employed him, and 
invited Titian to England; but merely as a portrait 
painter whether the reward offered was thought ade- 
quate to his merit, or for some other cause, perhaps 
the knowledge that his talents for historical design 
would be depreciated, he firmly rejected the overture. 
The public works of Holbien, in England, are four 
only, as enumerated by Mr. Walpole, which are rather 
groupes of portraits than history. 

Nothing could be more unfavourable to female beau- 
ty, than the dress of those times: Holbein's men are 
therefore much more characteristic than his ladies ; 
even his Anna Bulleyne is deficient in loveliness, as he 
portrayed her. In his likeness of Anne of Cleves, he 
is said to have sacrificed truth to flattery ; yet the ori- 
ginal, which is in the possession of Mr. Barret, of Lee, 
in Kent, js below mediocrity. There are in his Ma- 
jesty's collection, a series of portraits of persons of 
quality in the reign of Henry the Eighth, sketched upon 
paper, with crayons, probably taken at a single sitting. 
They have lately been engraved by Bartolozzi, with all 
the strength and spirit of the originals. 

Holbien was as celebrated in miniature, as in oil 
colours. He made a great number of designs- for en- 
gravers, sculptors, and jewellers. He died at his 
residence at Whitehall, in those lodgings which were 
afterwards the paper-offices. 

The fame of Isaac Oliver, who flourished about the 
latter end of the reign of Elizabeth, as a miniature pain- 
ter, is well known : he received some instructions 
from Frederico Zucchero, who was in England at that 


time, where among other portraits, he painted that of 
the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. Oliver drew 
well, and made some admirable copies from the Italian 
masters. Greatly as Isaac was celebrated he was af- 
terwards exceeded by his son Peter, who drew portraits 
of King James the First, Prince Henry, Prince Charles 
and most of the court. 

About this period Cornelius Jansens, a skilful por- 
trait painter, came to England from Amsterdam, and 
painted the king, and many of the nobility ; but his 
merits being eclipsed by Vandycke, of whom he was 
jealous, and the civil war breaking out, he fled from 
England. Cornelius Jansens was remarkable for high 
finishing in his draperies; many of which are black, 
which seems to add roundness, relief and spirit, to his 
figures and carnations. He is said to have used ultra 
marine in the black colours, as well as i n the carnations , 
to which may be attributed their lustre even at this day. 
The duke of Beaufort has a capital portrait of Jansens 
by himself; but one of his best performances is the 
Rushout family , at Northwick, in Worcestershire. 

Daniel My tens was a popular painter in the reign of 
James, and Charles I. He had studied under Rubens, 
and was for some time principal painter to Charles, 
but was deprived of his place when Vandycke arrived 
in England. Charles, however continued his pension 
during life. 

Vandycke had his first instruction from Vanbalen, 
of Antwerp, but he soon found in Reubens a master 
every way more suited to direct his genius, and to 
mature that consummate taste, which he very early 
showed marks of possessing. Under the instruction* 


of Reubens, he acquired such skill in his art that the 
portraitofhis master's wife, which he painted while he 
was yet his disciple, is esteemed one of the best pic- 
tures in the low countries. He painted for his master 
two admirable pieces, one representing Christ seized 
in the garden, and the other the crowning him with 
thorns. When he left Reubens, he travelled into Italy! 
and on his return, having established his reputation 
as one of the first painters of the age, he was invited to 
England, where he was knighted by Charles I. and 
married one of the handsomest ladies of the court, the 
daughter of Lord Ruthven, Earl of Gowry. Towards 
the latter end of his life he went to France, in hopes of 
being employed in the great gallery of the Louvre ; but 
not succeeding, he returned to England, and proposed 
to the king to make cartoons for the banquetting-house 
at White-hall; but his demand of 80,000 being 
judged unreasonable, whilst the king was treating 
with him for a less sum, the gout, and other distem- 
pers put an end to his life. 

Dobson had merited from Charles I. the title of the 
English Tintoret, before his premature death, in 1646 
at the age of only thirty-six years. He was the father 
of the English school of portrait painting ; and though 
sometimes unequal, had much the manner of his master 
Vandycke. He resided much at Oxford, and left there 
the portraits of himself and wife, and of Sir Trades- 
cant, and his friend Zythepsa, the Quaker, in the stair- 
case of the Ashmolean Museum. Dobson sometimes 
painted history. His decollation of St John, at Wilton, 
and the astronomer and his family, at Blenheim, are 
among those which are most known and admired. 


Lely was in the former part of his life, a landscape 
painter, but was induced to practice portrait painting, 
perhaps from the reputation and emolument which its 
professors obtained in England. Lely was chiefly 
celebrated for painting females; and it is sometimes 
objected to him that his faces have too great a simi- 
larity of expression. The languishing air, the drowsy 
sweetness peculiar to himself, and 

"The sleepy eye that spoke the melting soul," 

is found in nearly all the pictures of females by this 

His crayon drawings are admirable. He drew the 
portrait of Charles I. when a prisoner at Hampton- 
Court. Charles II. knighted him, and made him his 
principal painter. 

Kneller was the fashionable artist in the reigns of 
James II. and William: among an infinity of portraits 
there are some which bear the marks of excellence. 
Dr. Wallis, the mathematician, and Lord Crew, both 
for colouring and expression, are in a great style. 
The latter was admired by Sir Joshua Reynolds for the 
air of nobility it possesses. Kneller is said to have 
drawn ten crowned heads, viz. four kings of England, 
and three queens; the Czar of Moscow, the Emperor 
Charles, and Louis XIV. Notwithstanding the negli- 
gence which is manifest in most of his works, which 
arose from the desire of gain, his genius is very ap- 

Thornhill's pencil has produced several great works; 
those in fresco in the dome of St. Paul's and the 
painted hall at Greenwich, are too well known to need 


describing ! The works of his son-in-law, Hogarth , 
are also known to every one conversant with the art. 
As a painter of natural humour, he stands unrivalled, 
nor can it be expected that his more serious moral 
works will ever be equalled, still less surpassed, by 
any future artist. 

Richardson was a portrait painter of eminence : to 
his treatise on painting we are indebted for the greatest 
ornament to the art, Sir Joshua Reynolds, who fixed 
the destination of his mind on the profession, by the 
accidental reading of that work. Hudson was the 
best pupil of Richardson. 

The m erit of Sir Joshua Reynolds, as a portrait 
painter, cannot be attributed to Hudson's instructions 
since his manner seems entirely his own. Sir Joshua 
was born at Plipton, in Devonshire, in the year 1723 : 
his relations still preserve some frontispieces to the 
lives of Plutarch, as specimens of his early predilec- 
tion for his art, and the promise he gave of becoming 
eminent in it. He became pupil to Hudson about 
1743; who, amongst other advice, recommended him 
to copy Guerchino's drawings, which he did, with such 
gkill, that many of them are preserved in the cabinets 
of collectors, as the originals of that master. About 
the year 1 750, he went to Rome to prosecute his studies? 
where he remained nearly two years, and employed 
himself in rather making studies from, than copying 
the works of the great painters : he amused himself 
with painting caricatures, particularly one of all the 
English then at Rome, in the different atttudes of 
Raphael's celebrated school at Athens. 

An ingenious critic thus delineates Sir Joshua's pro- 


fessjonal character: "Sir Joshua Reynolds was, most 
assuredly, the best portrait painter that this age ha* 
produced : he possessed something original in his man- 
ner, which distinguished him from those painters who 
preceded him. His colouring was excellent ; and his 
distribution of light and shadow so generally judicious 
and varied, that it most clearly showed that it was not 
a mere trick of practice, but the result of principle. In 
history painting, his abilities were very respectable ; 
and his invention and judgment were sufficient to have 
enabled him to have made a very distinguished figure 
in that very arduous branch of his profession, if the 
exclusive taste of his country for portraits had not dis- 
couraged him from cultivating a talent so very unpro- 
ductive and neglected. His drawing, though incor- 
rect, had always something of grandeur in it." 

To his own pictures might well be applied what he 
used to say respecting those of Reubens: " They re- 
semble," said he, " a well-chosen nosegay, in which, 
though the colours are splendid and vivid, they are 
never glaring or oppressive to the eye." Sir Joshua 
was a great experimentalist, with respect to the com- 
position of his colours: at first he used preparations 
from vegetables, which. he relinquished for minerals: 
he is known to have purchased pictures by Titian, or 
his scholars, and to have scraped off the several 
layers of colouring, in order to ascertain it, and dis- 
cover his secret. 

The English school of painting must acknowledge 
Sir Joshua Reynolds as its great founder, under Royal 
auspices in the establishment of the Academy. The 
pure precepts which he laid down in his annual orations, 


were exemplified in his own works: his most favorite 
paintings are: 1. Garrick between Tragedy and 
Comedy. 2. The Ugolino in prison, in which he has 
imitated Michael Angelo in his " terribil via," as it is 
called by AugustinoCarracci,in his sonnet on painting. 
It is Sir Joshua's triumph in the art. 3. The Nativity. 
4. The Infant Hercules. 5. The death of Cardinal 
Beaufort, in which are united the local colourii g of 
Titian, with the chiaro scuro of Rembrandt. 6. Mrs. 
Siddons. 7. Mrs. Billington. 8. Robin Goodfellow. 
9. Cimon and Iphigene. 10. Holy Family, which 
displays a novel and beautiful manner of treating that 
very frequent subject. 

To speak generally of the English school, their 
colouring is less glaring than that of the Flemish or 
Venetian masters. Their talents are more admirable 
in portrait than history, particularly in those of females. 
Examine (says a French writer) a picture of a French 
woman, painted by an artist of that nation, and you 
will generally find, in place of expression, a forced grin, 
in which the eyes and forehead do not partake, and 
which indicates no affection of the soul. Examine the 
picture of an English woman done by one of their 
painters, and you observe an elegant and simple ex- 
pression, which makes you at once acquainted with the 
person represented. 

Perhaps it might be difficult to assign to the English 
school, as exhibited in the Royal Academy, any perfect 
discrimination; as each painter, either implicitly fol- 
lows his own genius, or attaches himself to that par- 
ticular manner of the foreign schools which approaches 
nearest to his own ideas of excellence; but there are 


other exhibitions in which the best painters of the age 
have exerted a successful competition. Alderman 
Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery; Macklin's Gallery of 
Subjects, taken from the English poets ; Boyer's gallery 
of those illustrative of English history ; and Fuseli's, 
from Milton, all by his own pencil, are very honour- 
able testimonies of the spirit of private individuals in 
the cause of the arts. 

Mr. Fuseli's boundless imagination has attempted, 
with surprising effect, to embody several metaphysi- 
cal ideas which occur in the Paradise Lost. He has 
gained a free and uncontrouled admission into the 
richest regions of fancy; but appears not to be solicitous 
about how few of his spectators can partially follow 
him there, or how many are totally excluded. 

The excellence of Mr. West in historical and scrip- 
tural subjects, is universally allowed. The institution 
of the Order of the Garter is his grand work, both for 
composition, correctness and finishing. His death of 
the stag; the battles of LaHogue and the Boyne; and 
his death of General Wolfe, are all in an excellent style 
of composition : the latter is esteemed by an eminent 
critic, a perfect model of historical composition; as the 
pictures by Barry, late professor of painting in tne 
Royal Academy, (in the rooms of the Society for the 
encouragement of the Arts), and of the poetic style. 
In the course of the last twenty years, some of the 
most able artists this country ever produced, have 
flourished and died. The great landscape painters of 
Italy have scarcely exceeded the Smiths of Chichester, 
Gainsborough, and Wilson, in truth and nature, and 
he accuracy of their native scenery. It would be 


injustice not to mention Wilson's pictures of Niobe, 
Phaeton, and Cicero, at his Villa; which last rivals 
even Claude himself. 

Mortimer, who died prematurely, in the freedom of 
his pencil, and the savage air Of his banditti, his favou- 
rite subject, approached nearly to the boldest efforts 
of Salvator Rosa. 

Of living artists we decline speaking, with the excep- 
tion of those whose eminence, as men of genius, has 
placed them beyound competition. In the works of 
Northcote, Opie, and Lawrence, we hail the continu- 
ance of an English school, and the happy application 
of those classical precepts which its founder, Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, delivered with so much dignity and 
effect ; and while the artists of this country are influenced 
by such rules, their improvement must be unrivalled, 
as by such a local advantage, they will reach a degree 
of perfection, to which the other modern schools of 
painting in Europe will in vain attempt to aspire. 


Painting may be defined to be a mode of communi- 
cating ideas to the mind, by means of a representation 
of the visible parts of nature ; we adopt this mode of 
expression, because the art can hardly be said to be 
confined to the mere representation of visible objects, 
since by delineating outward demonstrations it is 
enabled to convey the ideas of internal affections and 
mental actions. It will necessarily follow that those 
subjects are the most immediately within the province 


of our art, whose essential qualities are as it were con- 
tained in the visible parts of things, or most capable 
of being expressed by objects of sight; and this, though 
a truism, we have thought it necessary to state, as ex- 
perience every day shews, that it is not sufficiently 
attended to. By the essential qualities of a subject, 
we must be understood to mean those which give it 
its interest. 

The only means by which the painter can communi- 
cate his ideas to the spectator, or in other words, tell 
his story, are combinations of figures and other visible 
objects, the representation of gesture, and the expres- 
sion of countenance. 

As the powers of writing, in the way of narrative, 
are such as to enable it to conve) to the reader a just 
idea of a succession of transactions or events; whereas 
it cannot by the most laboured description give us 
any other than a confused or erroneous notion of the 
situation of a building, the windings of a river, the 
forms of a mountain, or the beauty and expression of 
a countenance; so painting, inasmuch as it is incom- 
petent to relate the conspiracy, or record the oration, 
is proportionally rich in its means of description. As 
description is the most arduous task of language, so 
narration is the great difficulty of painting; a difficulty 
however not always insurmountable to the artist, who 
to a competent knowledge and practice in the several 
component parts of his art, adds that of judgment in 
the choice of his subject, as will presently appear, 

In a picture, the artist must necessarily choose one 
point of time for his representation, but the usual doc- 
trine that a picture can absolutely express no more 


than this one moment of the story, requires some illus- 
tration, as otherwise the inconsiderate might naturally 
be led to underrate the powers of communication 
given to our art. The truth we believe is, that though 
a picture must represent one moment of time only, 
yet in that representation, the memorial^ as it were* 
of past moments, may be recorded, and the idea of 
future ones clearly anticipated; and though this doc- 
trine may, upon first sight, appear opposed to generally 
established opinion, a little reflection will, we are 
assured, convince any one of its truth, 

It will require very little argument to shew, that 
many of the bodily actions of men do indicate, and, 
under particular circumstances, demonstrate certain 
other actions to have taken place previously; which is 
certainly expressing the past in the present; nor will 
it be more difficult to find instances of a present action 
denoting some future one ; that is, expressing the future 
in the present. A figure walking or running, denotes 
a past, a present, and a future action. The sword of 
the soldier drawn and lifted up over the neck of the 
beautiful St. Catharine, denotes a future actor event; 
that of her head being severed from her body ; the 
hardened executioner forcing his sword into the scab- 
bard, after having performed his office, as clearly 
shews what has gone before. 

Two thing should concur to render a story eminent- 
ly eligible for painting. First, the incident or act to 
be represented should be of an unequivocal nature ; 
such as, when represented, can leave no doubt on 
the mind of the observer as to its meaning; and se- 
condly, either the cause of the act, or its probable con* 


sequence or result,should be such as is capable of being 
expressed by objects in the picture; but when both 
the cause or the end proposed, in the act represented, 
and the consequence of that act, can be made evident 
to us in a picture, such a picture is a narration, be- 
comes truly a dumb poesy, and creates a most lively 
interest in our minds, possessing as it does, those 
properties which, as Aristotle observes, are necessary 
to the perfection of a drama ; a beginning, a middle, 
and an end. 

When we behold a representation of the Corinthian 
maid tracing the shadow of her favoured youth on the 
wall, love, the cause of the action, is rendered appa- 
rent by the endearments attending it : the conse- 
quence, which we are told was the invention of paint- 
ing, is not evident to one uninformed of the tradition. 
Not so in Mr. Fuseli's pathetic composition of Paolo 
and Francesca, from Dante. Here we are at a loss 
as to no one of these particulars ; the picture in 
every respect explaining itself with as much force, 
and as unequivocally as the poem. Love urges the 
stolen kiss and guilty dalliance, and the consequence 
is as evidently the destruction of the lovers by the 
avenging and uplifted hand of the insulted husband. 

Of Invention. 

INVENTION, in painting, consists principally in 
three things : first the choice of a subject properly 
within the scope of the art ; secondly, the seizure of 
the most striking and energetic moment of time for 
representation, and lastly, the discovery and selec- 
tion of such objects, and such probable incidental 


circumstances, as, combined together, may best tend 
to develope the story, or augment the interest of the 
piece. The cartoons of Raphael, at Hampton Court, 
furnish us with an example of genius and sagacity in 
this part of the art, too much to our present purpose 
to be omitted. We shall describe it in the words of 
Mr. Webbe. " When the inhabitants of Lystra are 
about to offer sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, it was 
necessary to let us into the cause of all the motion 
and hurry before us ; accordingly, the cripple whom 
they miraculously healed, appears in the crowd ; 
observe the means which the painter has used to 
distinguish this object, and of course to open the 
subject of his piece. His crutches, now useless, are 
thrown to the ground ; his attitude is that of one 
accustomed to such a support, and still doubtful of 
his limbs : the eagerness, the impetuosity with which 
he solicits his benefactors to accept the honours des- 
tined for them, point out his gratitude, and the occa- 
sion of it: during the time that he is thus busied, an 
elderly citizen, of some consequence, by his appear- 
ance, draws near, and lifting up the corner of his 
vest, surveys with astonishment the limb newly re- 
stored ; whilst a man of middle age, and a youth, 
looking over the shoulder of the cripple, are intent on 
the same object. The wit of man could not devise 
means more certain of the end proposed ; such a 
chain of circumstances is equal to a narration ; and I 
cannot but think, that the whole would have been, an 
example of invention and conduct, even in the hap- 
piest age of antiquity." The works of the first re- 
storers of painting may be likewise studied with great 


profit, so far as relates to invention, composition, and 
expression. In the executive parts of the art they 
seldom approach even mediocrity ; less able there- 
fore to gratify the eye, the artist applied himself ex- 
clusively to interest the mind of the spectator. 
Amongst the frescoes of Giotto, in the church of St. 
Francis, at Assisi, is one which, from the ingenuity 
of the invention, seems particularlyto claim a place 
here ; the subject is that of a wounded man, who, 
given over by his physician, is miraculously healed 
in a vision by St. Francis. The chief group of the 
picture represents the sick man, who, extended on 
his bed, is looking up with a stedfast countenance at 
the saint, who is laying his hand upon the wound. 
Two angels accompany St. Francis, ene of whom 
holds a box of ointment. In another part of the pic- 
ture the physician is represented about to go out of 
the room door, followed by a woman, evidently ;i 
sister or near relative of the wounded man, who with 
a taper in her hand, has been conducting him to the 
bedside. She is earnestly attentive to what the phy- 
sician is saying to the father, who has been waiting 
for them at tie outside of the door, and who shews 
by his gestures, which the tears of the young woman 
corroborate, that no hopes are given of his son's re- 

Tn the two pictures last mentioned, the different 
figures admitted were essential to the perfect expla- 
nation of the story. Sometimes, however, a group, 
or figure, which although not necessary, shall never- 
theless appear naturally, as it were, to grow out of 
the subject, may be introduced with great augrnenta- 
' E 2 


tion of the expression and effect of the piece. Such 
was the pathetic episode of Aristides, so repeatedly 
imitated in modern times by Poussin, and other pain- 

Of Composition. 

THE judicious disposal of the materials furnished 
by the imagination, or invention, in such a manner as 
best to contribute to the beauty, the expressio'n, and 
the effect of the picture, constitute what is termed 
composition in painting. 

The chief merit of composition may be said to con- 
V sist in that arrangement, which wearing the appear- 
ance of mere chance, is, in fact, the most studied ef- 
fect of art. A painter, therefore, is equally to avoid 
the dryness of those ancients who always planted 
their figures like so many couples in a procession, and 
the affectation of those moderns who jumble them 
together as if they were met merely to fight and 
squabble. In this branch Raphael was happy enough 
to choose the just medium, and attain perfection. 
The disposition of his figures is always exactly such 
as the subject requires. 

Let the inferior figures of a piece be placed as they 
will, the principal figure should strike the eye most, 
and stand out, as it were, from among the rest : this 
may be effected various ways, as by placing it in the 
centre of the piece ; by exhibiting it, in a manner, by 
itself; by making the principal light fall upon it; by 
giving it the most resplendent drapery, or, indeed, by 
several of these methods ; nay, by all of them toge- 
ther : for, being the hero of the picturesque fable, it 


is but just that it should draw the eye to itself, and 
stand forward the most conspicuous part of the sub- 

It has been said, that painters should follow the ex- 
ample of comic writers, who compose their fables of as 
few persons as possible. Yet some pictures require a 
number of figures ; on these occasions it depends en- 
tirely on the skill of the painter to dispose of them in 
such a manner, that the principal ones may always be 
obvious anddistinct; he must take care that his piece 
be full, but not charged. In this respect, the battles 
of Alexander, by Le Brun, are master-pieces which 
can never be sufficiently studied ; whereas nothing, on 
the other hand, can be more unhappythan the famous 
Paradise of Tinterot, which covers one entire side of 
the great council-chamber at Venice ; for being badly 
composed, it appears a chaos, and fatigues the eye. 
In a sketch of this subject in the palace of Bavilaqua 
at Verona, he has succeeded much better ; there the 
several choirs of martyrs, virgins, bishops, and other 
saints, are judiciously thrown into so many clusters 
parted here and there by a fine fleece of clouds, so as 
to exhibit the innumerable host of heaven ; the whole 
composed in such a way as to form a very agreeable 

It were in vain, however, to prescribe any other 
general rule for the distribution of the figures in a 
picture, except such as is dictated by the peculiar 
circumstances and character of the story to be repre- 
sented. Much has been said of the pyramidical 
group, the serpentine line, the artificial contrast, and 
upon doctrines like these, Lanfranco, Cortona, Gior- 
E 3 


dano, Maratti, and many others, their predecessors, 
as well as followers, formed a style better calculated 
to amuse the eye than to satisfy the judgment : an 
inordinate but ill directed thirst of variety is the basis 
of this artificial system; contrast is succeeded by 
contrast, opposition by opposition ; but as this prin- 
ciple pervades all their works, the result is no variety 
at all, and their conduct may be compared to that of 
the voluptuary, who, grasping at every enjoyment 
which presents, itself, acquires satiety instead of plea- 
sured Each subject, however different its character, 
is composed in a manner similar to the other, that 
the spectator may view a gallery of such pictures, sel- 
dom discovering the subjects they are intended to re- 
present, and without being afterwards enabled to call 
to mind one prominent feature distinguishing the one 
from the other. 

If Raphael can be said to have regulated his com- 
position by any particular rule or maxim, it was that 
of making each as unlike the other as possible, con* 
sistent with propriety of expression. Thus in the 
cartoon of Christ giving the keys to Peter, the Apos- 
tles, all crowding together to be witnesses of the 
action, occupy the principal part of the picture, and 
form a group in profile, the Saviour, although in the 
corner of the picture, being nevertheless rendered evi- 
dently the principal figure, by the insulated situation 
given to him, as well as by the actions of the Apostles, 
who all press forward towards him, as to the centre 
of attraction. This cartoon is finely contrasted by 
the magnificent composition representing the death 
of Ananias, where the Apostles form a group in the 


centre, and are all seen in front. That of Peter and 
John healing the cripple at the beautiful gate of the 
temple, is again strikingly different from either of its 
companions, Raphael having there, with a boldness 
of which any but a sublime genius would have been 
incapable, intersected his composition by the columns 
of the portico. But though divided, it is true, into 
separate and almost equal parts, neither the unity of 
aciton, nor the expression of the picture, is impaired, 
whilst the effect produced is at once novel and beau- 

The reason of breaking a composition into several 
groupes is, that the eye, passing freely from one ob- 
ject to another, may the better comprehend the whole. 
But the painter is not to stop here; for these groupes 
are, besides to be so artfully put together, as to form 
rich clusters, give the whole composition an air of 
grandeur, and afford the spectator an opportunity of 
discerning the whole at a single glance. These effects 
are greatly promoted by a due regard to the nature 
of colours, so as not to place together these which 
are incongruous, or to distract by too great a variety. 
They should be so judiciously disposed as to temper 
and qualify each other. 

Let the whole, in a word, and all the different parts 
of the composition, possess probability, grace, cos- 
tume, and the particular character of what is repre- 
sented. Let nothing look like uniformity of manner 
which does not appear less in the composition than it 
does in colouring, drapery, and design ; and is, as it 
were, tha.t kind ascent, by which painters may be as 
readily distinguished as foreigners are, by pronoun- 



cing in the same manner all the different languages 
they happen to be acquainted with. 

Of Design. 

IN the process of painting, design may properly be 
said to follow next after composition ; for although this 
part of the art is, in a certain degree, requisite, even in 
making the first rough sketch, it is not until afterwards 
that the artist exerts his utmost powers to give that 
exact proportion, that beauty of contour, and that grace 
and dignity of action and deportment to his figures 
which constitute the perfection of design : that which 
was first only hinted at is now to be defined : a few 
rude and careless lines were sufficient in the sketch to 
indicate the general attitude and expression of the 
figure, now the utmost precision is required, not only 
in the outline of the naked parts, but even in the deli- 
neation of the most complicated windings of a lock of 
hair, or the intricate folds of a drapery. A very high 
degree of excellence in design, is perhaps justly con-- 
sidered the greatest difficulty of painting. 

The progress of design, towards that perfection to 
which it was carried by the Grecian artists, was, like 
every other branch of the arts, slow and gradual; we 
are told by Pliny, that all the statues before the time 
of Daedalus, were represented stiff and motionless, 
with the feet closed, and arms hanging in right lines 
to their sides ; or they had only the head finished ; 
the body, arms, and legs not being expressed. These 
were the rude essays of design. 

In the progress of the art, and in abler hands, motion 
was fashioned into grace, and life was heightened into 


"character; beauty of form was no longer confined to 
mere imitation, which always fall short of the object 
imitated; to make the copy equal in its effect, it was 
necessary to give it an advantage over its model; the 
artists, therefore, observing that nature was sparing of 
her perfections,and that her efforts were limited toparts, 
availed themselves of her inequalities, and drawing 
those scattered beauties into a more happy and com- 
plete union, rose from an imperfect imitation, to a 
perfect ideal beauty. We are informed that the painters 
of Greece, pressed in crowds to design the bosom and 
breast of Thais ; nor were the elegant proportions of 
Phryne less the object of their study : by this constant 
contemplation of the beautiful, they enriched their 
imagination, and confirmed their taste; from this fund 
they drew their systems of beauty; and though we 
should consider them but as imitators of the parts, we 
must allow them to have been the inventors in the 

Should we doubt the justice of the preference given 
to invented beauty, over the real, we need only con- 
template the fine proportions, and the style of drawing 
in the Laocoon and Gladiator, and mark the expressive 
energy of Apollo, and the elegant beauties of the Venus 
de Medicis. These are the utmost efforts of design ; 
it can reach no farther than a full exertion of grace, 
beauty, and character. 

The design of the ancients is distinguished by an 
union of proportions, a simplicity of contour, and an 
excellence of character. 

There is no one excellence of design from which we 
derive such immediate pleasure, as from gracefulness 
E 5 


of action: if we observe the attitudes and movements 
of the Greek statues, we shall mark that careless de- 
cency, and unaffected grace, which ever attend the 
motions of men unconscious of observation. 

Raphael has been wonderfully happy in imitating 
this simple elegance of the antique; the most courtly 
imagination cannot represent to itself an image of more 
winning grace than is to be seen in his Sancta Csecila. 
Indeed, an elegant simplicity is the characteristic of" 
his design; we no where meet in him the affected 
contrasts of Michael Angelo, or the studied attitudes 
of Guido. 

The design of Raphael was, in its beginning, dry, 
but correct; he enlarged it much on seeing the drawings 
of Michael Angelo: of too just an eye to give entirely 
into the excesses of his model, he struck out a middle 
style, which, however, was not so happily blended, as 
quite to throw off the influence of the extremes: hence, 
in the great he is apt to swell into the charged; in the 
delicate to drop into the little: his design, notwith- 
standing, is beautiful ; but never arrived to that per- 
ection which we discover in the Greek statues. 
. He is excellent in the characters of philosophers, 
apostles, and the like; but the figures of his women 
have not that elegance which is distinguished in the 
Venus de Medicis, of the daughter of Niobe; in these, 
his convex contours have a certain heaviness, which, 
in seeking to avoid he fulls into a dryness still less 
pardonable. His proportions are esteemed excellent, 
yet not having formed his manner on the most beautiful 
antique, we do not see in him that elegant symmetry 
that freedom in the joints which lend all their motion 


to the Laocoon and Gladiator ! instead of these, the 
figures of Michael Angelo were his models in the great 
style; whence, having quitted the lines of nature, and 
not having substituted ideal beauty, he became too 
like his original, as may be seen in his Incendio di 
Borgo. Would we therefore place Raphael in his true 
point of view, we must observe him in the middle age; 
in old men, or in the nervous nature: in his Madonas, 
he knew how to choose, as likewise how to vary the 
most beautiful parts of nature; but he knew not how 
to express a beauty superior to the natural. 

Thus in his Galatea, where he has attempted a 
character of perfect beauty, he has fallen short of the 
beauty of his Madonas: the cause of this seems to be, 
that he drew the former after his own ideas, which 
were imprefect: in the latter he copied beautiful nature, 
which was almost perfect: a second observation wil 
confirm this opinion : of all the objects of painting, 
Angels call most for ideal beauty ! and those of Raphael 
are by no means distinguished in this particular. 

One of the greatest excellencies of design, is grace. 
Corregio in this is inimitable. His constant aim was 
grace, and a happy effect of light and shade. A wav- 
ing and varied contour was necessary to this end, hence 
he studiously avoided right lines, and acute angles at 
too simple in their effects. Thus the habit and neces- 
sity of continually varying his outline, threw him into 
little errors in drawing, which spring not from an 
ignorance of this branch of his art; but from a predi- 
lection for another; and there are few who would wish 
those inadvertencies away, accompanied with the 
charms which gave occasion to them. 
E 6 


We may affirm of this design,where it is not sacrificed 
to his more favorite aims, that it is often masterly, and 
always pleasing; a quality rarely to be met with in 
those servile painters, who think they have attained 
every perfection, if they keep within the rules of draw- 
ings. Such painters (says Quintilian) while they think 
it sufficient to be free from faults, fall into that capital 
one, the want of beauties. 

The most perfect knowledge of form, however, only 
constitutes a part of that branch of painting which 
we term design : the art of fore-shortening, by which 
a limb, or a figure, although only occupying a dimi- 
nished space on the canvas, is rendered, in appear- 
ance, of its full length and magnitude, is an equally 
indispensable object of the artist's attainment. The 
sculptor, when he has chisseled or modelled the form 
of his figure or group, with its just proportions, has 
completed his work, which is rather the simple trans- 
script than the imitation of the image previously form- 
ed in his mind: his art is undisguised, and without il- 
lusion: it presents as well to our touch as to our sight' 
the bodies and shapes of things without the colour. 
The distinguishing prerogative of painting, on the 
other hand, and that from which arises its decided 
advantage over every other artificial mode of repre- 
sentation, is its power to give upon a limited plane the 
appearance of boundless space. An insight into the 
science of perspective, and the doctrines of lights and 
shadows, is indispensable ere the student can hope to 
acquire the art of fore-shortening his figures with cor- 
rectness: an art in which the great Michael Angelo 
has evinced such consummate skill in his frescoes in 


the Sestine Chapel at Rome, that they can never be 
sufficiently contemplated. The works of Corregio, 
and in particular his two cupolas at Parma, may like- 
wise be studied with advantage, and sufficiently prove 
that even the boldest fore-shortenings may on many 
occasions be resorted to without detriment to the 
beauty, the grace, or expression of the figures. In 
the execution of these, and most of his chief works, 
however, he was greatly assisted by his friend Antonio 
Begarelli, a celebrated Modenese sculptor, who mo- 
delled for him in clay all the figures, so that Corregio, 
by placing and grouping them together as they were 
to be represented, was enabled to delineate, with the 
greatest correctness, every fore-shortening, and at the 
same time to acquire a truth and boldness of lighfand 
shade unattained by any other means. And here it 
may be well to observe, that the trouble of preparing 
such models in the first instance, is amply repaid by 
the great facility, or rather certainty, which it gives, 
the artist in the execution of his work. Moreover, 
the painter having his modelled figures before him, 
and being enabled, by varying the situation of his eye, 
to view them m every direction, will frequently disco- 
ver beautiful combinations which he never dreamed of 
at the same time that he is rendered less liable to the 
error of too often repeating the same view of a figure^ 
or the same action, and is taught to avoid a common 
place mode of composition. 

We shall close this article with an account of the 
Apollo Belvidere, and the celebrated groupe of Laocoon, 
so long the pride of Rome, but removed to Paris dvi- 


ring its ravages by the French republicans, as described 
by the late Abbe Winckleham : 


"Of all the productions of art, which have escaped 
the ravages of time, the statue of Apollo Belvidere is 
unquestionably the most sublime. The artist founded 
this work upon imagination, and has only employed 
substance for the purpose of realizing his ideas. As 
much as the descriptions which Homer has given of 
Apollo are superior to those given of him by other 
poets, in the same degree is this statue superior to any 
other statues of that deity. Its stature is above that of 
man, and its attitude breathes majesty. An eternal 
spring, such as reigns in the delightful fields of Elysium, 
clothes with youth the manly charms of his body, and 
gives abrilliancy to the animated structure of his limbs. 

"Endeavour to penetrate into the regions of incor- 
poreal beauty; try to become the creator of a celestial 
nature in order to elevate your soul to the contempla- 
tion of supernatural beau ties; for here there is nothing 
mortal : neither the veins nor sinews are too conspi- 
cuous : a kind of celestial spirit animates the whole 
figure. The God has pursued Python, against whom 
he has for the first time, bent his dreadful bow : in his 
rapid course he has overtaken him, and given him a 
mortal blow. In the height of his joy, his august fea- 
tures denote more than victory. Disdain is seated on 
his lips, arid the indignation which he breathes distends 
his nostrils, and affects his eye-brows : but still his 
forehead expresses serenity, and he is all full of sweet- 


ness, as if he were surrounded by the Muses, eager t 
caress him. 

"Among all the figures of Jupiter which we possess 
you will not see one in which the Father of the Gods 
displays so much of that majesty described by the poets, 
as does the statue of his son. The peculiar beauties of 
all the other Gods are united in this figure, in the same 
manner as in the divine Pandora. The forehead is the 
forehead of Jupiter, impregnated with the Goddess of 
Wisdom; his eye-brows, by their movement, declare 
their wishes ; his eyes in their celestial orbits, are the 
eyes of the Queen of the Goddesses ; and the mouth 
is that which inspired the beautiful Bacchus with vo- 
luptuousness. Like the tender branches of the vine, 
his fine hairs play about as if they were slightly ruffled 
by the breath of zephyrs ; they seemed perfumed with 
celestial essence, and negligently tied by the hands of 
the Graces. 

"On seeing this prodigy of art, I forgot the whole 
universe ; I placed myself in a more noble attitude to 
contemplate it with dignity. From admiration I pas- 
sed to extacy ; filled with respect, I felt my breast agi- 
tated like those who are inspired with the spirit of 
prophecy. _ 

"I felt myself transported to Delas and the sacred 
woods of Lycia, places which Apollo honoured with his 
presence ; for the beauty which was before my eyes ap- 
peared to be animated, as formerly the beautiful statue 
produced by the chizel of Pygmalion. How can I de- 
scribe you, oh, inimitable chef (Paui-re! Art itself 
must inspire me and guide my pen. 

"The outlines which I have traced I lay at your feet ; 


so those who cannot reach to the head of the deity 
they adore, place at his feet the garlands with which 
they wish to crown him." 


" Laocoon presents to us a picture of the deepest 
distress, under the representatiou.of a man, contend- 
ing with all his powers in his own defence, while his 
muscles and sinews are dilated and contracted by agony 
you may still perceive the vigour of his mind expressed 
on his wrinkled forehead. His breast oppressed with 
restrained respiration, seems to contend against the 
pain with which it is agitated. 

"The groans which he restrains, and his breath, 
which he holds in, seems to exhaust the lower part of 
his body, and the loins, by being drawn in, seern to 
discover his very entrails. Nevertheless, his own suf- 
ferings seem to affecthimless than those of his children 
who look up to him as if imploring his succour. Com- 
passion, like a dark vapour, overshadows his eyes. His 
physiognomy denotes complaint, his eyes are directed 
towards heaven, imploring assistance. His mouth be- 
speaks langour, and his lower lip is fallen. Agony 
mixed with indignation at his unjust punishment, is 
displayed in all his features. 

"The contestbetween pain and resistance is display- 
ed with greatest skill; for while the former draws up 
the eye-brows, the latter compresses the flesh over the 
eyes, and makes it descend over the upper eye-lids. The 
subject not allowing the artist to embellish nature, he 
has exerted himself to display contension and vigour. 
In those places where there is the greatest agony, there 


is also great beauty. Theleftside, on which the furious 
serpent makes its attack, seems to be in the greatest 
pain from its proximity to the heart. This part of the 
body may be called a prodigy of art. Laocoon wishes 
to raise his legs in order to escape. No part of the 
figure is in repose. The very flesh, by the skill of the 
artist, has the appearance of being benumbed. 

Expression of the Passions. 

THAT language which, above all others, a painter 
should carefully endeavour to learn, and from nature 
herself, is the language of the passions. Without it, 
the finest work must appear lifeless and inanimate. It 
is not enough for a painter to be able to delineate the 
most exuqisite forms, and give them the most grace- 
ful attitudes; it is not enough to dress them out with 
propriety, and in the most beautiful colours; it is not 
enough, in fine, by the powerful magic of light and 
shade to make the canvass varnish; he must likewise 
know how to cloathe his figures with grief, with joy, 
with fear, with anger ; he must, in some sort, write 
on their faces, what they think, and what they feel ; 
he must give them life and speech. It is, indeed, in 
this branch, that painting truly soars, and, in a man- 
ner rises superior to herself; it is in this she makes 
the spectator apprehend much more than what she 

Many have written, and, amongst the rest, the fa- 
mous Lavater, on the changes, that, according to 
various passions, happen in the muscles of the face, 
which is, as it were, a mirror of the soul. They ob- 
serve for example, that in fits of anger, the face red- 


dens, the muscles of the lips puff up, the eyes sparkle; 
and that, on the contrary, in fits of melancholy, the 
eyes grow motionless and dead, the face pale and the 
lips sink in. It is necessary the painter who would be 
thoroughly acquainted with this principal part of his 
profession should study, with care, the learned and 
ingenious treatise of the author abovementioned ; but 
for the young student, the short work of Le Brun, writ- 
ten for the pupils of the French academy of painting, 
will be more intelligible ; but it will be of infinitely 
more service to study them in nature itself, from 
whence they have been borrowed, and which exhibits 
them in that lively manner which neither tongue nor 
pen can express. 

But if a painter is to have immediate recourse to na- 
ture in any thing, it is particularly in treating those 
very minute and almost imperceptible differences, by 
which, however, things very different from each other 
are often expressed. This is particularly the case with 
regard to the passions of laughing and crying, as in 
these, however contrary, the muscles of the face ope- 
rate nearly in the same manner. 

According to Lionardo da Vinci, the best masters 
that painters can have recourse to in this branch, are 
those dumb men who have found out the method of 
expressing their sentiments by the motion of their 
hands, eyes, eye-brows, and, in short, every other 
part of the body. This advice, no doubt, is very good 
but then such gestures must be imitated with great 
sobriety and moderation, least they should appear too 
strong and exaggerated, and instead of character, the 
copy should degenerate into affectation and caricatura. 


Almost incredible things are told of the ancient 
painters of Greece in regard to expression, especially 
of Aristides, who, in a picture of his, representing a 
woman wounded to death at a siege, with a child 
crawling to her breast, makes her appear afraid, least 
the child, when she was dead, should, for want of 
milk, suck her blood. A Medea, murdering her chil- 
dren, by Timomachus, was likewise much praised, as 
the ingenious artist contrived to express, at once, in 
her countenance, both the fury that hurried her on to 
the commission of so great a crime, and the tender- 
ness of a mother that seemed to withhold her from it. 
Reubens attempted to express such a double effect in 
the face of Mary of Medicis, still in pain from her past 
labour, and, at the same time, full of joy at the birth of 
a Dauphin. And in the countenance of Sancta Polonia, 
painted by Tiepolo, for St. Anthony's church at Padua, 
is clearly read a mixture of pain from the wound given 
her by the executioner, and of the pleasure from the 
prospect. of Paradise opening to her by it. 

Few, to say the truth, are the examples of strong 
expression afforded by the Venetian, Flemish, or Lom- 
bard schools. - Deprived the advantage of contem- 
plating at leisure the works of the ancients, the purest 
sources of perfection in point of design, expression 
and character, and having nothing but nature con- 
stantly before their eyes, they made strength of co- 
louring, blooming complexions, and the grand effects 
of the chiaro scuro their principal study; they aimed 
more at charming the senses, than captivating the 

The Venetians, in particular, seemed to have placed 


their whole glory in setting off their pieces with all 
that rich variety of personages and dress, which their 
capital was continually receiving by means of its ex- 
tensive commerce, and which attracted so much the 
eyes of all those who visited it. It is doubtful, if, in 
all the pictures of Paolo Veronese, there is to be found 
a bold and judicious expression, or one of those atti- 
tudes, which, as Petrarch expresses it, speak without 
words ; unless, perhaps, it be that remarkable one in 
his Marriage-feast at Cana of Galilee. At one end of 
the table, and directly opposite to the bridegroom, 
whose eyes are fixed upon her, there appears a woman 
in red, holding up to him the skirt of her garment, as 
much as to say, that the wine miraculously produced 
was exactly the colour of her drapery ; and, in fact, it 
is red wine we see in the cup and vessels. But all this 
while the faces and attitudes of most of the company 
betray not the least sign of wonder, at so extraordi- 
nary a miracle. They all, in a manner, appear intent 
upon nothing but eating, drinking, and making merry. 
Such, in general, is the style of the Venetian school- 
The Florentine, over which Michael Angelo presided, 
above all things curious of design, was most scrupu- 
lously exact in point of anatomy. On this she set her 
heart, and took singular pleasure in displaying it. Not 
only elegance of form, and nobleness of invention, 
but likewise strength of expression, triumphed in the 
Roman school, nursed as it were, amongst the works 
of the Greeks, and in the bosom of a city which had 
once been the seminary of learning and politeness. 
Here it was that Domenichino and Poussin, both great 
masters of expression, refined their ideas, as appears 


more particularly by the St. Jerome of the one, and 
by the death of Germanicus, or the slaughter of the 
Innocents, by the other. Here it was that Raphael 
arose, the sovereign master of them all. There is not 
indeed a single picture of Raphael's, from the study 
of which, those who are curious in the point of expres- 
sion, may not reap great benefit, particularly his Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Felicitas ; his Magdalen in the house of 
the Pharisee ; his Transfiguration; his Joseph explain- 
ing to Pharaoh his dream, a piece so highly rated by 
Poussiri. His School of Athens, in the Vatican, is 
to all intents and purposes, a school of expression. 
Among the many miracles of art with which this piece 
abounds, we shall single out that of the four boys at- 
tending on a Mathematician, who, stooping to the 
ground, his compasses in his hand, is giving them 
the demonstration of a theorem. One of the boys 
recollected within himself, keeps back, with all ap- 
pearance of profound attention to the reasoning of 
the master; another, by the briskness of his attitude, 
discovers a greater quickness of apprehension; while 
the third, who has already seized the conclusion, is 
endeavouring to explain it to the fourth, who, stand- 
ing motionless with open arms, a staring countenance, 
and an unspeakable air of stupidity in his looks, will 
never, perhaps, be able to make any thing of the mat- 
ter. And it is probably from this very groupe that 
Albano, who studied Raphael so closely, drew the 
following precept^of his : "That it behoves a painter 
to express more circumstances than one by every atti- 
tude, and so to employ his figures, that, by barely 
seeing what they are actually about one may be able 


to guess, both what the have been already doing, and 
are next going to do." This is a difficult precept; but 
it is only by a due observance of it, the eye and the 
mind can be made to hang in suspense on a painted 
piece of canvass. It is expression, that a painter, am- 
bitious to soar in his profession, must, above all things 
labour tp perfect himself in. It is in expression that 
dumb poetry consists, and what the prince of our 
poets calls a visible language. 

Of Clair obscure, or Chiaro-scuro. 
CLAIR obscure, or chiaro-scuro, is the art of distri- 
buting tho lights and darks in a picture, in such a 
manner as to give at once proper relief to the figures, 
the best effect to the whole composition, and the great- 
est, delight to the eye. We have said the lights and 
darks in a picture, because the word chairo-scuro, pro- 
perly speaking, denotes not only light and shade, but 
light and dark of what kind soever, and in this sense 
it is nearly allied to colouring, if not indeed insepara- 
ble from it. A thorough conception and knowledge of 
the chairo-scuro is of the greatest importance to a 
painter, as it is chiefly by the proper application of 
this branch of the art, that he is enabled to make the 
various objects in his picture appear to project or re- 
cede, according to their relative situations or distances ; 
and thus far, indeed the principles of it are necessary 
to the artist, ere he can hope to render his imitation 
just or intelligible. But it is required in works of 
fine art, not only that truth should be told, or that 
beauty should be represented, but likewise that the 
one and the other should be made appear to every 


possible advantage; it has, therefore, ever been the 
study of great painters, not only to give the due ap- 
pearance of roundness or projection to the objects in 
their pictures, by proper lights and shadows; but like- 
wise to aniteor contrast the masses of light and dark 
in such a manner as to give at once the most forcible 
impression to the imagination, and the most pleasing 
effect to the eye. 

Leonardo da Vinci was the first artist of modern 
times who treated the subject of chiaro-scuro scientifi- 
cally ; but although he gave great force and softness 
to his pictures, yet the system which he recommended, 
and generally adopted, of relieving the dark side of the 
figures by a light back ground, and the light parts by 
a dark one, prevented that expansion and breadth of 
effect which Corregio soon after discovered, could only 
be attained by a contrary mode of conduct, that of re- 
lieving one shadow by another still darker, and of unit- 
ing several light objects into one great mass. The 
figures, as well as the other objects in the pictures of 
Corregio, are at all times so disposed as naturally to 
receive the light exactly in those parts where it is most 
wanted, and best suits the effect of the whole, and yet 
this is done so skilfully, that neither propriety nor 
grace of action seems in any respect to be sacrificed 
in the astonishing combination. * 

The principal painters of the Venetian school, Gior- 

gione, Titian, Bassan, Tintorit, and Paulo Veronese, 

were masters of effect ; but with them this effect is 

re frequently the result of accordance or opposition 

the local colours ot *he different objects composing 

ir pictures, than of anj very studied or skilful dis- 


position of the masses of light and shadow. Reubens 
the great genius of the Flemish school, united the wide 
expansive effect of Corregio, the richly contrasted tints 
of the Venetians, and the force of Carravaggio, and has 
only left us to regret that his magnificent and bold in- 
ventions were not designed with the purity of Raphael, 
or the correctness of Buonaroti. From the scanty in- 
troduction of light in the works of Rembrandt we might 
be led to suppose that this surprising artist considered 
the illumined parts of his pictures as gems, acquiring 
increased lustre from their rarity; whilst the striking 
effects he has thereby produced, happily teaches us, 
how vain the attempt to limit or restrain by rules the 
workings of genius in the human mind. From an at- 
tentive study of the works of these great masters, the 
student will derive the true principles of chiaro-scuro, 
and be the better qualified to seize and avail himself 
of those transient, but beautiful effects, which nature, 
the great master of all, every day presents to his eyes. 
It remains for us to say a few words on colouring. 

Of Colouring. 

COLOURING is the art of giving to every object in a 
picture its true and proper hue, as it appears under all 
the various circumstances or combinations of light, 
middle-tint and shadow; and of so blending and con- 
trasting the colours, as to make each appear with the 
greatest advantage and beauty, at the same time that 
it contributes to the richness, the brilliancy, and the 
harmony of the whole. "Should tho most able mas* 
ter in design," says Mr. WeV6e, "attempt, by that 
alone, a rose or grape, we *nould have but a faint and 


imperfect image ; lethim add to each its proper colours, 
we no longer doubt, we smell the rose, we touch the 

Colouring, though a subject greatly inferior to many 
others which the painter must study, is yet of sufficient 
importance to employ a considerable share of his atten- 
tion; and, to excel in it, he must be well acquainted 
with that part of optics which has the nature of light 
and colours for its object. Ligbt, however simple and 
uncompounded it may appear, is nevertheless made up, 
as it were, of several distinct substances; and the num- 
ber, and quantity of component parts, has been happily 
discovered by the moderns. Every undivided ray, let 
it be ever so fine, is a little bundle of blue, red, and 
yellow rays, which, while combined, are not to be 
distinguished one from another, and form that kind of 
light, called white; so that white is not a colour per se, 
as the learned De Vinci (so far, it seems, the precursor 
of Newton) expressly affirms, but an assemblage of 
colours. Now, these colours, which compose light, 
although immutable in themselves, and endued with 
various qualities, are continually, however, separating 
from each other in their reflection from, and passage 
through other substances, and thus become manifest 
to the eye. Grass, for example, reflects only green 
rays, or rather reflects green rays in greater number 
than it does those of any other colour; one kind of 
wine transmits red rays, and another yellowish rays ; 
and from this kind of separation arises that variety of 
colours with which nature has diversified her various 
productions. Man, too, has contrived to separate 
the rays of light, by making a portion of the sun's 


beams pass through a glass prism ; for after passing 
through it, they appear divided into three pure and 
primitive colours, placed in succession one by the 
other, like so many colours on a painter's pallet. 

Although a knowledge of the science of optics may 
be of great service to a painter, yet the pictures of the 
best colourists are, it is universally allowed, the books 
in which a young painter most chiefly look for the 
rules of colouring; that is, of that branch of painting 
which contributes so much to express the beauty of 
objects, and is so requisite to represent them as what 
they really are. Giorgione and Titian seem to have 
discovered circumstances in nature which others have 
entirely overlooked ; and the last in particular has been 
happy enough to express them with a pencil as deli- 
cate as his eye was quick and piercing. In his works 
we behold that sweetness of colouring which is pro- 
duced by union; that beauty which is consistent with 
truth; and all the insensible transmutations, all the 
soft transitions, in a word all the pleasing modulations 
of tints and colours. When a young painter has, by 
close application, acquired from Titian, whom he can 
never sufficiently dwell upon, that art which, of all 
painters, he has best contrived to hide, he would do 
well to turn to Bassano and Paolo, on account of the 
beauty, boldness, and elegance of their touches. That 
richness, softness, and freshness of colouring, for 
which the Lombard school is so justly celebrated, may 
likewise be of great service to him; ner will he reap 
less benefit by studying the principles and practice of 
the Flemish school, which, chiefly by means of her 
varnishes, has contrived to give a most enchanting 
lustre and transparency to her colours. 


But from whatever pictures a young painter may 
choose to study the art of colouring, he must take 
great care that they are well preserved. There are 
very few pieces which have not suffered more or less 
by the length, not to say the injuries, of time; and 
perhaps that precious patina, which years alone can 
impart to paintings, is in some measure akin to that 
other kind which ages alone can impart to medals; 
inasmuch as, by giving testimony to their antiquity, 
it renders them proportionably beautiful in the super- 
stitious eyes of the learned. It must, indeed, be 
allowed, that if on the one hand, this patina bestows, 
as it really does, an extraordinary degree of harmony 
upon the colours of a picture, and destroys, or at least 
greatly lessens, their original rawness, it, on the other 
hand, equally impairs the freshness and life of them. 
A piece seen many years after it has been painted, 
appears much as it would do, immediately after paint- 
ing, behind a dull glass. It is no idle opinion, that 
Paolo Veronese, attentive above all things to the 
beauty of his colours, and what is called strepito, left 
entirely to time the care of harmonizing them perfectly, 
and, (as we may say) mellowing them. But most of 
the old masters took that task upon themselves; and 
never exposed their works to the eyes of the public 
until they had ripened and finished them with their 
own hands. And who can say whether the Christ of 
Moneta, or the Nativity of Bassona, have been more 
improved or injured (if we may so speak) by the touch- 
ings and retouchings of time, in the course of more 
than two centuries? It is indeed impossible to be de- 
termined; but the studious pupil may make himself 


ample amends for any injuries which his originals may 
have received from the hands of time, by turning to 
truth, and to nature, which never grows old, but con- 
stantly retains its primitive flower of youth, and was 
itself the model of the models before him. As soon, 
therefore, as a young painter has laid a proper foun- 
dation for good colouring, by studying the best mas- 
ters, he should turn all his thoughts to truth and nature. 
And it would perhaps be well worth while to have, in 
the academies of pain ting, models for colouring as well 
as designing; that is from the one the pupils learn to 
give their due proportion to the several members and 
muscles, they may learn from the other to make their 
carnations rich and warm, and faithfully copy the dif- 
ferent local hues which appear quite distinct in the 
different parts of a fine body. To illustrate still farther 
the use of such a model, let us suppose it placed in 
different lights; now in that of the sun, now in that of 
the sky, and now again in that of a lamp or candle; 
one time placed in the shade, and another in a reflected 
light: hence the pupil may learn all the different effects 
of the complexion in different circumstances, whether 
the livid, the lucid, or transparent; and, above all that 
variety of tints and half-tints, occasioned in the colour 
of the skin by the epidermis having the bones imme- 
diately under it iu some places, and in others a greater 
or less number of blood-vessels or quantity of fat. An 
artist who had long studied such a model, would run 
no risk of degrading the beauties of nature by any 
particularity of stile, or of giving into that preposterous 
fulness and floridness of colouring, which is at present 
so much the taste; he would not feed his figures with 


roses, as an ancient painter of Greece shrewdly ex- 
pressed it What statues are in design, nature is in 
colouring; the fountain head of that perfection to 
vrhich every artist, ambitious to excel, should con- 
stantly aspire : and, accordingly, the Flemish painters, 
in consequence of their aiming solely to copy nature, 
are in colouring as excellent as they are commonly 
aukward in designing. A good model for the tone of 
colours, and the gradation of shades, is furnished by 
means of the camera obscura. 

We may form a general idea of the various effects of 
reflections from the following examples : If a blue be 
reflected on a yellow, the latter becomes greenish; if 
on a red, the red becomes purple ; and so on through a 
variety of combinations. As the white is of a nature 
to receive all the colours, and to be tinged with that 
of each reflection, the painter must be careful how his 
carnations may be affected by the several reflections. 


IN the present enquiry it has been our chief aim to 
enforce such arguments as are calculated to draw the 
attention of the reader to the legitimate end of the 
art; that, whilst the eye is charmed with beautiful 
forms, the magic of chiaro-scuro, and the richness and 
harmony of colours, the due expression of the subject 
of a piece may be attained, it were folly to deny : this 
union, indeed, constitutes the perfection of painting, 
which should convey, like fine writing, truths to the 
mind in language at once the most forcible and beau- 
tiful; but an attempt to point out the means by which 
this delight may be conveyed to the sight, would ne* 


cessarily require a minute investigation of all the diffe- 
rent modes which it is in the power of the painter to 
adopt in the executive departments of his art; and 
consequently lead us, with perhaps, after all, little 
prospect of success, far beyond the limits we are 
obliged to prescribe to ourselves. 

Simplicity with variety, inequality of parts, with 
union in the whole, are, perhaps, the basis of all those 
effects in painting which give pleasure to the sight. 
As in a composition one group, or one figure, should 
strike the eye with superiority over the secondary 
groups, or other objects in the picture; so there should 
be in a picture one principal mass of light, which, how- 
ever connected with others, should still predominate; 
and for the same reason no two colours should have 
equal sway in the same picture: as we are at liberty to 
give the chief group or figure of the composition that 
situation which we judge most appropriate; so there 
is no rule by which we are obliged to place the princi- 
pal light in any one given part of the picture. In clair- 
obscure, an inequality of parts, a subordination of se- 
veral small masses to one large one, never fails to pro- 
duce richness and beauty of effect; and thus, hi com- 
position, a similar richness and beauty are the result of 
an opposition of several small bodies or parts, to one 
large and simple ; and in the same manner from an ar- 
rangement of several small masses of colour in the vi- 
cinity of one large mass, the latter seems enriched, 
and to acquire additional consequence and beauty. 

As by the addition of smaller masses of light, con- 
nected with the principal mass, that mass acquires at 
once greater breadth and influence, so the unity of ac- 


tion in a composition is in many cases powerfully aug- 
mented by a repetition of nearly the same action in two 
or three of the accessorial figures arranged together, 
one nevertheless being principal: this was the frequent 
custom of Raphael, has its foundation in nature, where 
similar sentiments most frequently excite similar out- 
ward demonstrations, and never fails, if judiciously 
managed, to produce its effect. 

The doctrine of contrasts is equally applicable to 
composition, to clair-obscura, and to colouring. As 
in composition, the too frequent contrast of lines, or of 
back to front figures, is destructive of simplicity and 
force of expression : so the inordinate and frequent in- 
troduction of strong oppositions of lights and shadows, 
or of colours, produces a spotty and confused appear- 
ance, wholly subversive of breadth and grandeur of ef- 
fect: the moderate and judicious use of contrasts is of 
the greatest use; it gives a zest to the picture, and is 
like the discord in music, which sheds additional sweet- 
< ness on the full harmony which succeeds it. 

It will be easily perceived, that to accomplish all 
these objects, is by no means an easy task. 

In some an inclination to pursue the arts appears at 
a very early period of life, and it is often difficult to 
ascertain the circumstance which gave that particular 
impulse to the mind; though there must always be 
some accidental circumstance, not depending upon 
ourselves, that creates in us that desire. 

When a boy is possessed of good talents, and has 

so strong a passion for the arts, that scarcely any thing 

can restrain him, there can be little fear of his doing 

well, if suffered to follow the bent of his inclination ; 



but without this, nothing should induce him to engage 
in a profession of so arduous a nature, and which re- 
quires such unwearied application. He may learn to 
draw the correct outlines of buildings, and other regu- 
lar objects, by the rules of perspective; but the form- 
ing fine pictures, so as to affect the mind, is an art not 
reducible to rule, and though much may be taught, yet 
much more will ever depend upon the mind of the ar- 
tist. Here it is that the existence of a quality which 
distinguishes one man from another, is so obvious. 
This has been denominated by various appellations, 
none of which are capable of being correctly defined. 
It has been called genius, taste, soul, mind, and a vari- 
ety of other terms, all of which are indefinite, and 
prove that we know but little of our own nature. 
Some even deny the existence of this distinction 
altogether, and maintain that men are mere machines, 
acted unnn only by external circumstances, and capable 
of being trained to any purpose. 

It will be foreign to our purpose to enter ' into any 
discussion on this subject; but we shall add a passage 
relating to it, from the Lectures of the late Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. " There is one precept," he observes, " in 
which I shall be opposed only by the vain, the igno- 
rant, and the idle. I am not afraid that I shall repeat 
it too often. You must have no dependance on your 
own genius. If you have great talents, industry will 
improve them ; if you have moderate abilities, indus- 
try will supply their deficiency. Nothing is denied to 
well-directed labour; nothing is to be obtained with- 
out it. Not to enter into metaphysical discussions on 
the nature or essence of genius, I will venture to as- 


sert, that assiduity, unabated by difficulties, and a 
disposition eagerly directed to the object of its pursuit, 
will produce effects similar to those which some call 
the result of natural powers. Though a man cannot at 
all times, and in all places, paint or draw, yet the mind 
can prepare itself by laying in proper materials, at all 
times and in all places. 

" 1 cannot help imagining that I see a promising 
young painter, equally vigilant, whether at home, or 
abroad, in the streets or in the fields. Every object 
that presents itself is to him a lesson. He regards all 
nature with a view to his profession, and combines 
her beauties, or conects her defects. He examines 
the countenances of men under the influence of pas- 
sion, and often catches the most pleasing hints from 
subjects of turbulence or deformity. Even bad pictures 
themselves supply him with useful documents; and as 
Leonardo de Vinci has observed, he improves upon 
the fanciful images that are sometimes seen in the 
tire, or are accidentally sketched upon a discoloured 

" The artist who has his mind thus filled with ideas, 
and his hand made expert by practice, works with ease 
and readiness: whilst he who would have you believe 
that he is waiting for the inspirations of genius, is in 
reality at a loss how to begin, and is at last delivered 
of his monsters with difficulty and pain. 

" What then," exclaims the inimitable Gessner, who 
possessed such true feeling for the sublimer parts of 
the art, " must be the fate of those who do not join an 
inflexible labour to an habitual meditation? Let the 
artist who despises or neglects these important means 



make no pretension to the recompence due to active 
and sensible minds. There is no reputation for him, 
to whom a taste for his art does not become his ruling 
passion; to whom the hours he employs in its cultiva- 
tion, are not the most delicious of his life; to whom 
the study of it does not constitute his real existence 
and his primary happiness; to whom the society of 
artists is not, of all others, the most pleasing; to him 
whose watchings, or dreams in the night, are not oc- 
cupied with the ideas of his art; who in" the morning 
\/"does not fly with fresh transport to his painting-room. 
But, of all others, unhappy is he who descends to flat- 
ter the corrupt taste of the age in which he lives, who 
delights himself with applauded trifles, who does not 
labour for true glory, and the admiration of posterity. 
Never will he be admired by it; his name will never 
be repeated; his works will never fire the imagination, 
nor touch the heart of those fortunate mortals who 
cherish the arts, vrho honour their favorites, and 
search after their works." 



As all the objects in nature are susceptible of imi- 
tation by the pencil, the masters of this art have 
applied themselves to different subjects, each one as 
his talents, his taste, or inclination, may have led 
him. From whence have risen the following classes. 

I. History-painting : which represents the principal 
events in history, sacred and profane, real or fabulous; 
and to this class belongs allegorical expression. These 
are the most sublime productions of the art; and in 
which Raphael, Guido, Reubens, Le Brun, &c. have 

II. Rural-history; or the representation of a country 
lite, of villages and hamlets, and their inhabitants. 
This is an inferior class; and in which Teniers, Breug- 
hel, Watteau, &c. have great reputation, by rendering 
it at once pleasing and graceful. 

HI. Portrait-painting; which is an admirable branch 
of this art, and has engaged the attention of the 
greatest masters in all ages, as Apelles, Guido, Van- 
dyke, Rembrandt, . Regauds, Pesne, Kneller, La 
Tour, &c. 

IV. Grotesque histories; as the nocturnal meetings 
of witches; sorceries and incantations; the operations 
of mountebanks, &c. a sort of painting in which the 
younger Breughel, Teniers, and others, have exercised 
their talents with success. 

i a 


V. Battle-pieces; by which Huchtemberg, Wouver- 
man, &c. have rendered themselves famous. 

VI. Landscapes; a charming species of painting, that 
has been treated by masters of the greatest genius in 
every nation. 

VII. Landscapes diversified with waters, as rivers, 
lakes, cataracts, &c.; which require a peculiar talent, 
to express the water sometimes smooth and tranpa- 
rent,and at others foaming and rushing furiously along. 

VIII. Sea-pieces; in which are represented the ocean, 
harbours, and great rivers; and the vessels, boats, 
barges, &c. with which they are covered; sometimes 
in a calm, sometimes in a fresh breeze, and at others 
in a storm. In this class Backhuysen, Vandervelde, 
Blome,and many others have acquired great reputation. 

IX. Night-pieces,- which represent all sorts of objects, 
either as illuminated by torches, by the flames of a 
conflagration, or by the light of the moon. Schalck, 
Vanderneer, Vanderpool, &c. have here excelled. 

X. Living Animals: A more difficult branch of 
painting than is commonly imagined; and in which 
Rosa, Carre, Vandervelde, and many others, have 
succeeded marvellously well. 

XL Birds of all kinds; a very laborious species, and 
which requires extreme patience minutely to express 
the infinite variety and delicacy of their plumage. 

XII. Culinary pieces; which represent all sorts of 
provisions, and animals without life, &c. A species 
much, inferior to the rest, in which nature never ap- 
pears to advantage, and which requires only a servile 
imitation of objects that are but little pleasing. The 
painting of fishes is naturally referred to this class. 


XIII. Fruit pieces, of every kind, imitated from na- 

XIV. Flower pieces; a charming class of painting ; 
where Art in the hands of Huyzam, P. Segerts, Me- 
rian, &c. becomes the rival of Nature. Plants and in- 
sects are usually referred to the painters of flowers, 
who with them ornament their works. 

XV. Pieces of architecture; a kind of painting in 
which the Italians excel all others. Under this class 
may be comprehended the representations of ruins, 
sea-ports, streets, and public places; such as are seen 
in the works of Caneletti, and other able masters. 

XVI. Instruments of music, pieces of furniture, and 
other inanimate objects; a trifling species, and in 
which able painters only accidentally employ their ta- 

XVII. Imitations of bas-reliefs; a very pleasing kind 
of painting, and which may be carried by an able hand 
to a high degree of excellence. 

XVIII. Hunting pieces : these also require a pecu- 
liar talent, as they unite the painting of men, horses, 
dogs, and game, to that of landscapes. 

It will not be expected that we should here give the 
rules that the painter is to observe in handling each 
particular object. These must be learned from the 
study of the art itself. Good masters, academies of 
reputation, and a rational practice, are the sources from 
whence the young painter must derive the detail of his 
art. We shall however, in addition to those which 
have been given under drawing, insert some rules and 
observations relative to Landscape and Portrait; these 
with History painting, (the rules for which may be 


gathered from the general principle already laid 
down,) forming the principal branch of the art. 


LANDSCAPE-painting includes every object that the 
country presents : and is distinguished into the heroic, 
and the pastoral or rural; of which indeed all other 
styles are but mixtures. 

The heroic style is a composition of objects, which 
in their kinds draw both from art and nature, every 
thing that is great and extraordinary in either. The 
situations are perfectly agreeable and surprising. The 
only buildings are temples, pyramids, ancient places 
of burial, alters consecrated to the divinities, pleasure- 
houses of regular architecture ; and if nature appear 
not there as we every day casually see her, she is at 
least represented as we think she out to be. This 
style is an agreeable illusion, and a sort of enchantment, 
when handled by a man of fine genius and a good under- 
standing, as Poussin was,who has so happily expressed 
it. But if, in the course of this stile, the painter has 
not talent enough to maintain the sublime, he is often 
in danger of falling into the childish manner. 

The rural style is a representation of countries, ra- 
ther abandoned to the caprice of nature, than cultiv ated : 
we there see nature simple, without ornament, and 
without artifice ; but with all those graces wherewith 
she adorns herself much more when left to herself thai 
when constrained by art. 

PAINTING. 1 ] 1 

In this style, situations bear all sort of varieties : 
sometimes they are very extensive and open, to con- 
tain the flocks of the shepherds ; at others very wild, 
for the retreat of solitary persons, and a cover for wild 

It rarely happens that a painter has a genius exten- 
sive enough to embrace all the parts of painting : there 
is commonly some one part which pre-engages our 
choice, and so fills our mind, that we forget the pains 
that are due to the other parts ; and we seldom fail to 
see, that those whose inclination leads them to the he- 
roic style, think they have done all, when they have in- 
troduced into their compositions such noble objects as 
will raise the imagination, without ever giving them- 
selves the trouble to study the effects of good colouring. 
Those, on the other hand, who practise the pastoral, 
apply closely to colouring, in order to represent truth 
more lively. Both these styles have their sectaries and 
partizans. Those who follow the heroic, supply by 
their imagination what it wants of truth, and they look 
no farther. 

As a counterbalance to heroic landscape, it would be 
proper to put into the pastoral, besides a great character 
of truth, some affecting, extraordinary, but probable 
effect of nature, as was Titian's custom. 

There is an infinity of pieces wherein both these 
styles happily meet ; and which of the two has the 
ascendant, will appear from what we have been just 
observing of their respective properties. The chief 
parts of landscapes are, their openings or situations, 
accidents, skies and clouds, offskips and mountains, 
verdure or turfing, rocks, grounds, or lands, terraces, 


fabrics, waters, fore-grounds, plants, figures, and trees ; 
of all which in their places. 

Of Openings or Situations. The word site, or situa- 
tion, signifies the " view, prospect, or opening of a 
country." It is derived from the Italian word sito ; and 
our painters have brought it into use, either because 
they were used to it in Italy, or because, as we think, 
they found it to be very expressive. 

Situations ought to be well put together; and so 
disengaged in their make, that the conjunction of 
grounds may not seem to be obstructed though we 
should see but a part of them. 

Situations are various, and represented according to 
the country the painter is thinking of : as either open 
or close, mountainous or watery, tilled and inhabited, 
or wild and lonely ; or, in fine, variegated by a prudent 
mixture of some of these. But if the painter be ob- 
liged to imitate nature in a flat and regular country, 
he must make it agreeable by a good disposition of 
the claro-obscuro, and such pleasing colouring as may 
make one soil unite with another. 

It is certain, that extraordinary situations are very 
pleasing, and cheer the imagination by the novelty 
and beauty of their makes, even when the local colour- 
ingis but moderately performed; because,atworst,such 
pictures are only looked on as unfinished, and wanting 
to be completed by some skilful hand in colouring ; 
whereas common situations and objects require good 
colouring and absolute finishing, in order to please. It 
was only by these properties that Claude Lorrain has 
made amends for his insipid choice in most of his 
situations. But in whatever manner that part be 


executed, one of the best ways to make it valuable, 
and even to multiply and vary it without altering its 
form, is properly to imagine some ingenious accident 
in it. s 

Of ^cciWen^i. An accident in painting is an ob- 
struction of the sun's light by the interposition of 
clouds, in such a manner, that some parts of the earth 
shall be in light and others in shade, which according 
to the motion of the clouds, succeed each other, and 
produce such wonderful effects and changes of the 
cforo-oiscura, as seem to create so many new situa- 
tions. This is daily observed in nature. And as this 
newness of situations is grounded only on the 
shapes of the clouds, and their motions, which are 
very inconstant and unequal, it follows, that these 
accidents are arbitrary ; and a painter of genius may 
dispose them to his own advantage when he thinks 
fit to use them : For he is not absolutely obliged io da 
it; and there have been some able landscape-painters 
who have never practised it, either through fear or 
custom, as Claude Lorrain and some others. 

Of the 6'Xy and Clouds. The sky, in painters terms, 
is the ethereal part over our heads ; but more parti- 
cularly the air in which we breathe, and that where 
clouds and storms are engendered. Its colour is blue, 
growing clearer as it approaches the earth, because of 
the interposition of vapours arising between the eye 
and the horizon; which, being penetrated by the light, 
communicates it to objects in a greater or lesser de 
gree, as they are more or less remote. 

But we must observe, that this light being either 
yellow or reddish in the evening, at sunset, these same 


objects partake not only of the light, but of the co- 
lour : thus the yellow light mixing with the blue, which 
is the natural colour of the sky, alters it, and gives it 
a tint more or less greenish, as the yellowness of the 
light is more or less deep. 

This observation is general and infallible : but there 
is an infinity of particular ones, which the painter must 
make upon the natural, with his pencil in his hand, 
when occasion offers ; for there are very fine and sin- 
gular eflects appearing in the sky, which it is difficult 
to make one conceive by physical reason. Who can 
tell, for example, why we see, in the bright part of 
some clouds, a fine red, when the source of the light 
which plays upon them is a most lively and distinguish- 
ing yellow? Who can account for the different reds 
seen in different clouds, at the very moment that these 
reds receive the light but in one place ? for these cO- 
idiifs &iiu surprising appearances seern to have no 
relation to the rainbow, a phenomenon for which the 
philosopher pretends to give solid reasons. 

These effects are all seen in the evening when the 
weather is inclining to change, either before a storm, 
or after it, when it is not quite gone, but has left some 
remains of it to draw our attention. 

The property of clouds is to be thin and airy, both 
J n shape and colour : their shapes.though infinite,must 
be studied and chosen after nature, at such times as 
they appear fine. To make them look thin, we ought 
to make their grounds unite thinly with them, espe- 
cially near their extremities, as if they were transparent: 
And if we would have them thick, their reflections 
must be so managed, as, without destroying their thin- 


ness, they may seem to wind and unite, if necessary 
with the clouds that are next to them. Little clouds 
often discover a little manner, and seldom have a good 
effect, unless when, being near each other, they seem 
altogether to make but one object. 

In short, the character of the sky is to be luminous ; 
and, as it is even the source of light, every thing that 
is upon the earth must yield to it in brightness. If, 
however, there is any thing that comes near it in 
light, it must be waters, and polished bodies which 
are susceptible of luminous reflections. 

But whilst the painter makes the sky luminous, he 
must not represent it always shining throughout. 

On the contrary, he must contrive his light so, that 
the greatest part of it may fall only upon one place : 
and, to make it more apparent, he must take as much 
care as possible to put it in opposition to some terres- 
trial object, that may render it more lively by its ihrk 
colour; as a tree, tower, or some other building that 
is a little high. 

This principal light might also be heightened, by a 
certain disposition of clouds having a supposed light, 
or a light ingeniously inclosed between cloads, whose 
sweet obscurity spreads itself by little and little on all 
hands. We have a great many examples of this in 
the Flemish school, which best understood landscape ; 
as Paul Brill, Breugel, Saveri : And the Sadelers and 
Merian's prints giveaclear idea of it, and wonderfully 
awaken the genius of those who have the principles of 
the claro scuro. 

Of Offskips and Mountains. Offskips have a near 
affinity with the sky ; it is the sky which determines 


either the force or faintness of them. They are 
darkest when the sky is most loaded, and brightest 
when it is most clear. They sometimes intermix their 
shapes and lights ; and there are times and countries, 
where the clouds pass between the mountains, whose 
tops rise and appear above them. Mountains that are 
high and covered with snow, are very proper to pro- 
duce extraordinary effects in the offskip, which are ad- 
vantageous to the painter, and pleasing to the spectator. 

The disposition of offskips,is arbitrary; let them 
only agree with the whole together of the picture, and 
the nature of the country we would represent. They 
are usually blue, because of the interposition of air 
between them and the eye ; but they lose this colour 
by degrees, as they come nearer the eye, and so take 
that which is natural to the objects. 

In distancing mountains, we must observe to join 
them insensibly by tlic rourmings oiF, which the re- 
flections make probable; and must, among other 
things, avoid a certain edgeness in their extremities, 
which makes them appear in slices, as if cut with 
scissars, and stuck upon the cloth. 

We must further observe, that the air, at the feet of 
mountains, being charged with vapours, is more sus- 
ceptible of light than at their tops. In this case, we 
suppose the main light to be set reasonably high, 
and to enlighten the mountains equally, or that the 
clouds deprive them of the light of the sun. But if 
we suppose the main light to be very low, and to 
strike the mountains, then their tops will be strongly 
enlightened, as well as every thing else in the same 
degree of light. 


Though the forms of things diminish in bigness, and 
colours lose their strength, in proportion as they re- 
cede from the first plan of the picture, to the most 
remote offskip, as we observe in nature and common 
practice ; yet this does not exclude the use of the ac- 
cidents. These contribute greatly to the wonderful in 
landscape, when they are properly introduced, and 
when the artist has a just idea of their good effects. 

Of Verdure, or Turfng. By turfing is meant the 
greenness with which the herbs colour the ground 
This is done several ways; and the diversity proceeds 
not only from the nature of plants, which, for the most 
part, have their particular verdures, but also from the 
change of seasons, and the colour of the earth, when 
the herbs are but thin sown. By this variety, a painter 
may choose or unite, in the same tract of land, several 
sorts of greens intermixed and blended together, which 
are often of great service to those who know how to 
use them ; because this diversity of greens, as it is 
often found in nature, gives a character of truth to 
those parts, where it is properly used. There is a 
wonderful example of this part of landscape, in the 
view of -Mechlin, by Reubens. 

Of Rocks. Though recks have all sorts of shapes, 
and participate of all colours, yet there are, in their 
diversity, certain characters which cannot be well ex- 
pressed without having recourse to nature. Some are 
in banks, and set off with beds of shrubs ; others in 
huge blocks, either projecting or falling back ; others 
consist of large broken parts, contiguous to each other ; 
and others, in short, of an enormous size, all in one 
stone, either naturally, as free-stone, or else through 


the injuries of time, which in the course of many ages 
has worn away their marks of separation. But, what- 
ever their form be, they are usually set out with clefts, 
breaks, hollows, bushes, moss, and the stains of time ; 
and these paerticulars, well managed, create a certain 
idea of truth. 

Rocks are of themselves gloomy, and only proper 
for solitudes : but where accompanied with bushes, 
they inspire a fresh air; and, when they have waters, 
either proceeding from, or washing them, they give 
an infinite pleasure, and seem to have a soul which 
animates them, and makes them sociable. 

Of Grounds or Lands. A ground or land, in painters 
terms, is a certain distinct piece of land, which is neither 
too woody nor hilly. Grounds contribute, more than 
any thing, to the gradation and distancing of landscape ; 
because they follow one another, either in shape, or in 
the claro-obscuro, or in their variety of colouring, or by 
some insensible conjunction of one with another. 

Multiplicity of grounds, though it be often contrary 
to grand manner, does not quite destroy it; for besides 
the extent of country which it exhibits, it is suscepti- 
ble of the accidents we have mentioned, and which, 
with a good management, have a fine effect. 

There is one nicety to be observed in grounds, 
which is, that in order to characterize them well, care 
must be taken, that the trees in them have a different 
verdure, and different colours from those grounds J 
though this difference, withal, must not be too ap- 

Of Terraces. A terrace, in painting, is a piece of 
ground, either quite naked orhaving very little herbage, 


like great roads and places often frequented. They are 
of use chiefly in the foregrounds of a picture, where 
they ought to be very spacious and open, and accom- 
panied, if we think fit, with some accidental verdure, 
and also with some stones, which if placed with judg- 
ment, give a terrace a greater air of probability. 
- Of Buildings. Painters mean by buildings any struc- 
tures they generally represent, but chiefly such as are 
of a regular architecture, or at least are most con- 
spicuous. Thus building is not so proper a name for 
the houses of country people, or the cottages of shep., 
herds, which are introduced into the rural taste, as for 
regular and showy edifices, which are always brought 
jnto the heroic. 

Buildings in general are a great ornament in land- 
scape, even when they are Gothic, or appear partly in 
habited and partly ruinous : they raise the imagination 
by the use they are thought to be designed for; as ap- 
pears from ancient towers, which seem to have been 
the habitations of fairies, and are now retreats for 
shepherds and owta. 

Of Waters. Much of the spirit of landscape is owing 
to the waters which are introduced in it. They appear 
in diverse manners; sometimes impetuous, as when a 
storm makes them overflow their banks ; at other times 
rebounding, as by the fall of a rock; at other times, 
through unusual pressure, gushing out and dividing 
into an infinity of silver streams, whose motion and 
murmuring agreeably deceive both the eye and ear; 
at other times calm and purling in a sandy bed ; at 
other times so still and standing, as to become a faith- 
ful looking glass, which doubles all the objects that are 


opposite to it; and in this state they have more life 
than in the most violent agitation. Consult Bourdon's 
works, or at least his prints, on this subject: he is one 
of those who have treated of waters with the greatest 
spirit and best genius. 

Waters are not proper for every situation: but to 
express them well, the artist ought to be perfect master 
of the exactness of watery reflections; because they 
only make painted water appear as real : for practice 
alone, without exactness, destroys the effect, and abates 
the pleasure of the eye. The rule for these reflections 
is very easy, and therefore the painter is the less par- 
donable for neglecting it. 

But it must be observed, that though water be as a 
looking-glass, yet it does not faithfully represent ob- 
jects but when it is still ; for if it be in any motion, ei- 
ther in a natural course or by the driving of the wind, 
its surface, becoming uneven, receives on its surges 
such lights and shades as, mixing with the appearance 
of the objects, confound both their shapes and colours. 

Of the foreground of a picture. As it is the part of 
the foreground to usher the eye into the piece, great 
care must be taken that the eye meet with good recep- 
tion ; sometimes by the opening of a fine terrace,whose 
design and workmanship may be equally curious ; 
sometimes by a variety of well-distinguished plants, 
and those sometimes flowered ; and at other times, by 
figures in a lively taste, or other subjects either admira- 
ble for their novelty or introduced as by chance. 

In a word, the artist cannot too much study his fore- 
ground objects, since they attract the eye, impress the 
first character of truth, and greatly contribute to make 


the artifice of a picture, successful, and to anticipate 
our esteem for the whole work. 

Of Plants. Plants are not always necessary in fore- 
grounds, because, as we have observed, there are seve- 
ral ways of making those grounds agreeable. But if 
we resolve to draw plants there, we ought to paint 
them exactly after the life ; or at least, among such as 
we paint practically, there ought to be some more 
finished than the rest, and whose kinds may be dis- 
tinguished by the difference of design and colouring, 
to the end that, by a probable supposition, they may 
give the othefs a character of truth. What has been 
said here of plants may be applied to the branches 
and barks of trees. 

Of Figures. In composing landscape, the artist 
may have intended to give it a character agreeable to 
the subject he has chosen, and which his figures ought 
to represent. He may also, and it commonly happens, 
have only thought of his figures, after finishing his 
landscape. The truth is, the figures in most landscapes 
are made rather to accompany than to suit them. 

It is true, there are landscapes so disposed and situ- 
ated, as to require only passing figures ; which several 
good masters, each in his style, have introduced, as 
Poussin in the heroic, and Fonquierin the rural, with 
all probability and grace. It is true also, that resting 
figures have been made to appear inwardly active. 
And these two different ways of treating figures are 
not to be blamed, because they act equally, though in a 
different manner. It is rather inaction that ought to 
be blamed in figures; for in this condition, which 
robs them of all connection with the landscape, tlu\y 


appear to be pasted on. But without obstructing the 
painter's liberty in this respect, undoubtedly the best 
way to make figures appear valuable is, to make them 
so to agree with the character of the landscape, that 
it may seem to have been made purely for the figures. 
We would not have them either insipid or indifferent, 
but to represent some little subject to awaken the 
spectator's attention, or else to give the picture a 
name of distinction among the curious. 

Great care must be taken to proportion the size of 
the figures to the bigness of the trees, and other ob- 
jects of the landscape. If they be too large, the picture 
will discover a little manner; and if too small, they 
will have the air of pigmies; which will destroy the 
worth of them, and make the landscape look enor- 
mous. There is, however, a greater inconvenience in 
making too large than too small ; because the latter 
at least gives an air of greatness to all the rest. But 
as landscape figures are generally small, they must be 
touched with spirit, and such lively figures as will 
attract, and yet preserve probability and a general 
union. The artist must, in fine, remember, that as 
the figures chiefly give life to a landscape, they must 
be dispersed as conveniently as possible. 

Of Trees. The beauty of trees is perhaps one of 
the greatest ornaments of landscape ; on account of 
the variety of their kinds, and their freshness, but 
chiefly their lightness, which makes them seem, as 
being exposed to the air, to be always in motion. 

Though diversity be pleasing in all the objects of 
landscape, itis chiefly in trees that it owes its greatest 
beauty. Landscape considers both their kinds and 


their forma. Their kinds require the painter's particu- 
lar study and attention, in order to distinguish them 
from each other ; for we must be able at first sight to 
discover which are oaks, elms, firs, sycamores, poplars, 
willows, pines, and other such trees, which, by a spe- 
cific colour, or touching, are distinguishable from all 
other kinds. This study is too large to be acquired 
in all its extent ; and, indeed, few painters have at- 
tained such a competent exactness in it as their art 
requires. But it is evident, that those who come 
nearest to perfection in it, will make their works in- 
finitely pleasing, and gain a great name. 

Besides the variety which is found in each kind of 
tree, there is in all trees a general variety. This is 
observed in the different manners in which their 
branches are disposed by a sport of nature ; which 
takes delight in making some very vigorous and thick, 
others more dry and thin ; some more green, others 
more red or yellow. The excellence of practice lies 
in the mixture of these varieties : but if the artist can 
distinguish the sorts but indifferently, he ought at 
least to vary their makes and colours ; because repe- 
tition in landscape is as tiresome to the eye, as 
monotony in discourse is to the ear. 

The variety of their makes is so great, that the 
painter would be inexcusable not to put it in practice 
upon occasion, especially when he finds it necessary 
to awaken the spectator's attention ; for, among trees, 
we discover the young and the old, the open and close, 
tapering and squat, bending upwards and downwards, 
stooping and shooting : in short, the variety is rather 
to be conceived than expressed. For instance, the 
G 2 


character of young trees is, to have long slender 
branches, few in number, but well set out; boughs 
well divided, and the foliage vigorous and well shaped ; 
whereas, in old trees, the branches are short, stocky, 
thick, and numerous ; the tufts blunt, and the foliage 
unequal and ill-shaped : but a little observation and 
genius will make us perfectly sensible of these 

In the various makes of trees, there must also be a 
distribution of branches, that has a just relation to, 
and probable connection with, the boughs or tufts, so 
as mutually to assist each other in giving the tree an 
appearance of thickness and of truth. But whatever 
their natures or manners of branching be, let it be re- 
membered, that the handling must be lively and thin, 
in order to preserve the spirit of their characters. 

Trees likewise vary in their barks, which are com- 
-monly grey ; but this grey, which in thick air, and 
low and marshy places, looks blackish, appears lighter 
in a clear air : and it often happens, in dry places, 
that the bark gathers a thin -moss, which makes it 
look quite yellow ; so that, to make the bark of a tree 
apparent, the painter may suppose it to be light upon 
a dark ground, and dark on a light one. 

The observation of the different barks merits a par- 
ticular attention; for it will appear, that, in hard woods, 
age chaps them, and thereby gives them a sort of em- 
broidery; and that, in proportion as they grow old, 
these chaps grow more deep. And other accidents in 
barks may arise either from moisture, or dryness, or 
green mosses, or white stains of several trees. 


The barks of white woods will also afford much 
matter for practice, if their diversity be duly studied; 
and this consideration leads us to say something of 
the study of landscape. 

Oj the study of Landscape. The study of landscape 
may be considered either with respect to beginners 
or to those who have made some advances in it. 

Beginners will find, in practice, that_the chief trou- 
ble of landscape lies in handling trees ; and it is not 
only in practice, but also in speculation, that trees are 
the most difficult part of landscape, as they are its 
greatest ornament. But it is only proposed here, to 
give beginners an idea of trees in general, and to show 
them how to express them well. It would be needless 
t<5 point out to them the common effects of trees and 
plants, because they are obvious to every one ; yet 
there are some things, which, though not unknown, 
deserve our reflection. We know, for instance, that 
all trees require air, some more, some less, as the 
chief cause of their vegetation and production ; and 
for this reason, all trees (except the cypress, and some 
others of the same kind) separate in their growth from 
one another and from other strange bodies as much 
as possible, and their branches and foliage do the 
same : wherefore, to give them that air and thinness, 
which is their principal character, the branches, 
boughs, and foliage, must appear to fly from each 
other, to proceed from opposite parts, and be well divi- 
ded. And all this without order ; as if chance aided 
nature in the fanciful diversity. But to say particu- 
larly how these trunks, branches and foliages, ought 
to be distributed, would be needless, and only a de- 
o 3 


scription of the works of great masters: a little reflec- 
tion on nature will be of more service than all that 
can be said on this head. By great masters, we mean 
such as have published prints ; for those will give 
better ideas to young copyists than even the paintings 

Among the many great masters of all schools, De 
Piles prefers Titian's wooden prints, where the trees 
are well shaped ; and those which Cornelius Cort and 
Agostino Carracci have engraved. And he asserts, 
that beginners can do no better tha contract, above 
all things, an habit of imitating the touches of these 
great masters, and of considering at the same time 
the perspective of the branches and foliages, and ob- 
serving how they appear, either when rising and seen 
from below, or when sinking and seen from above, OF 
when fronting and viewed from a point, or when they 
appear in profile, and, in a word, when set in the va- 
rious views in which nature presents them, without 
altering their characters. 

After having studied and copied, with the pen or 
crayon, first the prints, and then the designs of Titian 
and Carracci, the student should imitate with the 
pencil those touches which they have most distinctly 
specified, if their paintings can be procured : but 
since they are scarce, others should be got which have 
a good character for their touching ; as those of 
Fouquier, who is a most excellent model : Paul Bril, 
Breugel, and Bourdon, are also very good ; their 
touching is neat, lively, and thin. 

After having duly weighed the nature of trees, their 
spread and order, and the disposition of their 


branches, the artist must get a lively idea of them, 
in order to keep up the spirit of them throughout, 
either by making them apparent and distinct in the 
foregrounds, or obscure and confused in proportion to 
their distance. 

After having thus gained some knowledge in good 
manner, it will next be proper to study after nature, 
and to choose and rectify it according to the idea 
which the aforesaid great masters had of it. As to 
perfection, it can only be expected from long prac- 
tice and perseverance. On the whole, it is proper 
for those who have an inclination for landscape, above 
all things to take the proper methods for beginning it 

As for those who have made some advances in this 
part of painting, it is proper they should collect the 
necessary materials for their further improvement, 
and study those objects at least which they shall have 
most frequent occasion to represent. 

Painters usually comprise, under the word study, 
any thing whatever which they either design or paint 
separately after the life ; whether figures, heads, feet, 
hands, draperies, animals, mountains, trees, plants, 
flowers, fruits, or whatever may confirm them in the 
just imitation of nature: the drawing of these things 
is what they call study; whether they be for instruc- 
tion in design, or only to assure them of the truth, 
nd to perfect their work. In fact, this word study is 
the more properly used by painters, as in the diver- 
sity of nature they are daily making new discoveries, 
and confirming themselves in what they already 



As the landscape-painter need only study such ob- 
jects as are to be met with in the country, we would 
recommend to him some order, that his drawings may 
be always at hand when he wants them. For instance, 
he should copy after nature, on separate papers, the 
different effects of trees in general, and the different 
effects of each kind in particular, with- their trunks, 
foliage, and colours. He should also take the same 
method with some sorts of plants, because their variety 
is a great ornament to terraces on fore-grounds. He 
ought likewise to study the effects of the sky in the 
several times of the day and seasons of the year, in the 
various dispositions of clouds, both in serene, thunder- 
ing, and stormy weather; and in the offskip, the several 
sorts of rocks, waters, and other principal objects. 

These drawings, which may be made at different 
times, should be collected together ; and all that re- 
late to one matter be put into a book, to which the 
artist may have recourse at any time for what he 

Now, if the fine effects of nature, whether in shape 
or colour, whether for an entire picture or a part of 
one, be the artist's study ; and if the difficulty lies in 
choosing those effects well, he must for this purpose be 
born with good sense, good taste, and a fine genius ; 
and this genius must be cultivated by the observations 
which ought to be made on the works of the best mas- 
ters, how they choose nature, and how, while they 
corrected her, according to their art, they preserved 
her character. With these advantages, derived from 
nature and perfected by art, the painter cannot fail to 
make a good choice ; and, by distinguishing between 


the good and the bad, must needs find great instruc- 
tion even from the most common things. 

To improve themselves in this kind of studies, 
painters have taken several methods. 

There are some artists who have designed after na- 
ture, and in the open fields ; and have there quite 
finished those parts which they had chosen, but with- 
out any colour to them. 

Others have drawn, in oil colours, in a middle tint, 
on strong paper; and found this method convenient, 
because, the colours sinking, they could putcolouron 
colour, though different from each other. For this 
purpose they took with them a flat box, which com- 
modiously held their pallet, pencils, oil, and colours. 
This method, which indeed requires several imple- 
ments, is doubtless the best for drawing nature more 
particularly, and with greater exactness, especially if, 
after the work be dry and varnished, the artist return 
to the place where he drew, and retouch the principal 
things after nature. 

Others have only drawn the outlines of objects, and 
slightly washed them in colours near the life, for the 
ease of their memory. Others have attentively 
observed such parts as they had a mind to retain, 
and contented themselves with committing them to 
their memory, which upon occasion gave them a 
faithful account of them. Others have made draw- 
ings in pastil and wash together. Otliers, with more 
curiosity and patience, have gone several times to the 
places which were to their taste : the first time they 
only made choice of the parts, and drew them cor- 
rectly ; and the other times were spent in observing 
o 5 


the variety of colouring, and its alterations through 
change of light. 

Now these several methods are, very good, and 
each may be practised as best suits the student and 
his temper : but they require the necessaries for paint- 
ing, as colours, pencils, pastils, and leisure. Nature, 
however, at certain times, presents extraordinary but 
transient beauties, and such as can be of no service to 
the artist who has not as much time as is necessary 
to imitate what he admires. The best way, perhaps, 
to make advantage of such momentary occasions, is 

The painter being provided with a quire of paper 
and a black-lead pencil, let him quickly, but slightly, 
design what he sees extraordinary ; and, to remember 
the colouring, let him mark the principal parts with 
characters, which he can explain at the bottom of the 
paper, as far as is necessary for himself to understand 
them: A cloud, for instance, may be marked A, 
another cloud B, a light C, a mountain D, a terrace 
E, and so on. And having repeated these letters at 
the bottom of the paper, let him write against each 
that it is of such or such a colour; or for greater 
brevity, only blue, red, violet, grey, $c. or any other 
shorter abbreviation. After this, he must go to 
painting as soon as possible ; otherwise most of what 
he has observed will, in a little time, slip out of his 
memory. This method is the more useful, as it not 
only prevents our losing an infinity of sudden and 
transitory beauties, but also helps, by means of the 
aforesaid marks and characters, to perfect the other 
methods we have mentioned. 


If it be asked, Which is the properest time for these 
studies ? the answer is, That nature should be studied 
at all times, because she is to be represented at all sea- 
sons ; but autumn yields the most plentiful harvest for 
her fine effects : the mildness of that season, the 
beauty of the sky, the richness of the earth, and the 
variety of objects, are powerful inducements with the 
painter to make the proper inquiries for improving his 
genius and perfecting his art. 

But as we cannot see or observe every thing, it is 
very commendable to make use of other men's studies 
and to look upon them as if they were our own. Ra- 
phael sent some young men into Greece to design 
such things as he thought would be of service to him, 
and accordingly made use of them to as good purpose 
as if he himself had designed them on the spot: for 
this, Raphael is so far from deserving censure, that 
he ought, on the contrary, to be commended ; as an 
example, that painters ought to leave no way untried 
for improving in their professions. The landscape- 
painter may, accordingly, make use of the works of 
all those who have excelled in any kind, in order to 
acquire a good manner ; like the bees, which gather 
their variety of honey from different flowers. 



IF painting be an imitation of nature, it is doubly so 
in a portrait ; which not only represents a man in ge- 
neral, but such an one as may be distinguished from 
all others. And as the greatest perfection of a por- 
trait is extreme likeness, so the greatest of its faults is 
to resemble a person for whom it was not made ; 
since there are not in the world two persons quite like 
one another. 

There are four things necessary to make a portrait 
perfect ; air, colouring, attitude, and dress. 

Of Air. The air respects the lines of the face, the 
head-attire and the size. 

The lines of the face depend upon exactness of 
draught, and agreement of the parts; which all 
together must represent the physiognomy of the per- 
son painted in such a manner, that the picture of his 
body may seem to be also that of his mind. 

It is not exactness of design in portraits that gives 
spirit and true air, so much as the agreement of the 
parts at the very moment when the disposition, and 
temperament of the sitter are to be hit off. We see 
several portraits which, though correctly designed, 
have a cold, languishing, and stupid air ; whilst others, 
less correct in design, strike us, however, at first sight 
with the sitter's character. 

Few painters have been careful enough to put the 
parts well together : Sometimes the mouth is smiling, 
and the eyes are sad ; at other times, the eyes are 


cheerful, and the cheeks lank: by which means their 
work has a false air, and looks unnatural. We ought 
therefore to remember, that, when the sitter puts on a 
smiling air, the eyes close, the corners of the mouth 
draw up towards the nostrils, the cheeks swell, and 
the eye-brows widen : but in a melancholy air, these 
parts have a contrary effect. 

The eye-brows, being raised, give a grave and noble 
air ; but if arched, an air of astonishment. 

Of all the parts of the face, that which contributes 
most to likeness is the nose ; it is therefore of great 
moment to set and draw it well. 

Though the hair of the head seems to be part of the 
dress which is capable of various forms without alter- 
ing the air of the face; yet the head-attire which one 
has been most accustomed to creates such a likeness, 
that we scarce know a familiar acquaintance on his 
putting on a periwig somewhat different from that 
which he used to wear. It is necessary therefore, as 
far as possible, to take the air of the head ornament, 
and make it accompany and set off that of the face, 
if there be no reason to the contrary. 

As to the stature, it contributes so much to likeness, 
that we very often know people without seeing their 
face : It is therefore extremely proper to draw the size 
after the sitter himself, and in such an attitude as we 
think fit ; which was Vandyke's method. Here let us 
remark, that, in sitting, the person appears to be of a 
less free make, through the heaving of his shoulders ; 
wherefore, to adjust his size, it is proper to make him 
stand for a small time, swaying in the posture we would 
give him, and then make our observation. But here 


occurs a difficulty, which we shall endeavour to exa- 
mine : " Whether it is proper, in portraiture, to cor- 
rect the defects of nature T 

Likeness being the essence of portraiture, it would 
seem thatweoughtto imitate defects as well as beauties, 
since by this means the imitation will be more com- 
plete: It would be even hard to prove the contrary to 
one who would undertake the defence of this position. 
But ladies and gentlemen do not much approve of those 
painters who entertain such sentiments, and put them 
in practice. It is certain that some complaisance in 
this respect is due to them ; and there is little doubt 
but their pictures may be made to resemble, without 
displeasing them: for the effectual likeness is a just 
agreement of the parts that are painted with those of 
nature ; so that we may be at no loss to know the air of 
the face, and the teiriper of the person, whose picture is 
before us. All deformities therefore, when the air and 
temper may be discovered without them, ought to be 
either corrected or omitted in women's and young men's 
portraits. A nose somewhat awry may be helped, or 
a shrivelled neck, or high shoulders, adapted to a good 
air, without going from one extreme to another. But 
this must be done with great discretion : for, by endea- 
vouring to correct nature too much, we insensibly fall 
into a method of giving a general air to all our por- 
traits ; just as, by confining ourselves too much to the 
defects and littleness of nature, we are in danger of 
falling into the low and tasteless manner. 

But in the faces of heroes and men of rank, distin- 

\ guished either by dignities, virtues, or great qualities, 

we cannot be too exact, whether the parts be beauti- 


ful or not; for portraits of such persons are to be 
standing monuments to posterity ; in which case every 
thing in a picture is precious that is faithful. But 
after whatever manner the painter acquits himself in 
this point, let him never forget good air nor grace ; 
and that there are, in the natural, advantageous mo- 
ments for hitting them off. 

Of Colouring. Colouring, in portraiture, is an effu- 
sion of nature, discovering the true tempers of persons; 
and the temper being essential to likeness, it ought to 
be handled as exactly as the design. This part is the 
more valuable, as it is rare and difficult to hit. A great 
many painters have come to a likeness by strokes and 
outlines; but certainly they are few who have shewn 
in colours the tempers of persons. 

Two points are necessary in colouring ; exactness of 
tints, and the art of setting them off. The former is 
acquired by practice, in examining and comparing the 
colours we see in life with those by which we would 
imitate it : and the art of those tints consists in know- 
ing what one colour will produce when set by another, 
and in making good what either distance or time may 
abate of the glow and freshness of the colours. 

A painter who does nothing more than what he sees, 
will never arrive at a perfect imitation ; for though his 
work may seem, on the easal, to be good to him, it may 
not appear so to others, and perhaps even to himself, at 
a distance. A tint which, near, appears disjoined, and 
of one colour, may look of another at a distance, 
and be confounded in the mass it belongs to. If you 
would have your work, therefore, to produce a good 
effect in the place where it is to hang, both the colours 


the lights must be a little loaded; but learnedly, 
and with discretion. In this point consult Titian, 
Rubens, Vandyke, and Rembrandt's methods; for 
indeed their art is wonderful. 

The tints usually require three times of observation. 
The first is at the person's first sitting down, when he 
has more spirit and colouring than ordinary ; and this 
is to be noted in the first hour of his sitting. The se- 
cond is when, being composed, his look is as usual ; 
which is to be observed in the second hour. And the 
third is when, through tiresomeness by sitting in one 
posture, his colour alters to what weariness usually 
creates. On which account, it is best to keep to the 
sitter's usual tint, a little improved. He may also 
rise, and take some turns about, the room, to gain 
fresh spirits, -and shake off or prevent tiresomeness. 

In draperies, all sorts of colours do not suit all sorts 
of persons. In men's portraits, we need only observe 
great truth and great force; but in women's there must 
also be charms; whatever beauty they have must ap- 
pear in a fine light, and their blemishes must by some 
means or other be softened. For this reason, a white, 
lively, and bright tint, ought never to be set off by a 
fine yellow, which would make it look like plaster ; 
but rather by colours inclining to green, blue, or grey, 
or such others as, by their opposition, may make the 
tint appear more fleshy than usual in fair women. Van- 
dyke often made a fillemot coloured curtain for his 
ground; but that colour is soft and brown. Brown 
women, on the other hand, who have yellow enough 
in their tints to support the character of fleshiness, may 
very well have yellowish draperies, in order to bring 


down the yellow of their tints, and make them look 
the fresher ; and near very high-coloured and lively 
carnations linen does wonders. 

In grounds, two things are observable ; the tone and 
the colour. The colour is to be considered in the sam 
manner as those of draperies, with respect to the head. 
The tone must be always different from the mass it 
supports, and of which it is the ground, that the ob- 
jects coming upon it may not seem transparent, but 
solid and raised. The colour of the hair of the head 
usually determines the tone of the ground; and when 
the former is a bright chesnut, we are often embarras- 
sed, unless helped by means of a curtain, or some ac- 
cident of the claro-obscuro, supposed to be behind, or 
unless the ground is a sky. 

We must further observe, that where a ground is 
neither curtain nor landscape, or such like, but is 
plain and like a wall, it ought to be very much party- 
coloured, with almost imperceptible patches or stains; 
for, besides its being so in nature, the picture will look 
the more grand. 

Of Attitude, or Posture. Attitudes ought to suit 
the ages and qualities of persons and their tempers. 
In old men and women, they should be grave, majes- 
tic, and sometimes bold: and generally, in women, 
they ought to have a noble simplicity and modest 
cheerfulness ; for modesty ought to be the character of 
women ; a charm infinitely beyond coquetiy ! and in- 
deed coquettes themselves care not to be painted such. 

Attitudes are of two kinds: one in motion, the 
other at rest. Those at rest may suit every person : 
but those in motion are proper for young people only, 


and are hard to be expressed ; because a great part of 
the hair and drapery must be moved by the air; mo- 
tion, in painting, being never better expressed than 
by such agitations. The attitudes at rest must not 
appear so much at rest as to seem to represent an in- 
active person, and one who sits for no other purpose 
but to be a copy. And though the figure that is re- 
presented be at rest, yet the painter, if he thinks 
fit, may give it a flying drapery, provided the scene or 
ground be not a chamber or close place. 

It is above all things necessary that the figures which 
are not employed should appear to satisfy the specta- 
tor's curiosity ; and for this purpose show themselves 
in such an action as suits their tempers and conditions, 
as if they would inform him what they really were ; 
and as most people pretend to sincerity, honesty, and 
greatness of mind, we must avoid, in attitudes, all 
manner of affectation ; every thing there must appear 
easy and natural, and discover more or less spirit, 
nobleness, and majesty, in proportion to the person's 
character and dignity. In a word, the attitudes are 
the language of portraits ; and the skilful painter ought 
to give great attention to them. 

But the best attitudes are such as induce the specta- 
tor to think that the sitter took a favourable opportu- 
nity of being seen to advantage, and without affecta- 
tion. There is only one thing to be observed with re- 
gard to women's portraits, in whatever attitude they 
are placed ; which is, that they sway in such a manner 
as to give theirfacebut little shade; and that we care- 
fully examine whether the lady appear most beautiful 
in a smiling or in a serious air, and conduct ourselves 
accordingly. Let us now proceed to the next article. 


Of practice in Portraiture. According to De Piles, 
portraiture requires three different sittings and opera- 
tions ; to wit, dead-colouring, second-colouring, and 
retouching or finishing. Before the painter dead-co- 
lour, he must attentively consider what aspect will 
best suit the sitter, by putting him in different posi- 
tions, if we have not any settled design before us, or 
when we have determined this, it is of the least conse- 
quence to put the parts well together, by comparing 
always one part with another ! for not only the portrait 
acquires a greater likeness when well designed, but it 
is troublesome to make alterations at the second sit- 
ting, when the artist must only think of painting, that 
is, of disposing and uniting his colours. 

Experience tells us, that the dead-colouring ought 
to be clean, because of the slope and transparency of 
the colours, especially in the shades; and when the 
parts are well put together, and become clammy, they 
must be judiciously sweetened and melted into each 
other ; yet without taking away the air of the picture 
that the painter may have the pleasure of finishing it, 
in proportion as he draws. But if fiery geniuses do 
not like this method of scumbling, let them only mark 
the parts slightly, and so far as is necessary for giving 
an air. 

In dead-colouring, it is proper to put in rather too 
little than too much hair about the forehead ; that in 
finishing, we may be at liberty to place it where we 
please, and to paint it with all possible softness and 
delicacy. If, on the contrary, you sketch upon the 
forehead a lock which may appear to be of a good taste, 
and becoming the work, you may be puzzled in finish- 


ing it, and not find the life exactly in the same posi- 
tion as you would paint it. But this observation is not 
meant for men of skill andconsumate experience, who 
have nature in their heads, and make her submit to 
their ideas. 

The business of the second sitting is, to put the co- 
lours well in their places, and to paint them in a man- 
ner that is suitable to the sitter and to the effect we 
propose : but before they are made clammy, we ought 
to examine afresh whether the parts are rightly placed, 
and here and there to give some touches towards like- 
ness, that, when we are assured t>f it, the work may 
go on with great satisfaction. If the painter under- 
stands what he is about, and the portrait be justly de- 
signed, he ought as much as possible to work quick; 
the sitter will be better pleased, and the work will by 
this means have the more spirit and life. But this rea- 
diness is only the effect of long study and experience ; 
for we may well be allowed a considerable time to find 
out a road that is easy, and such as we must often 
travel in. 

Before we retouch or finish, it is proper to termi- 
nate the hair, that, on finishing the carnations, we 
may be abler to judge of the effect of the whole head. 
If, at the second sitting, we cannot do all we in- 
tended, which often happens, the third makes up the 
loss, and gives both spirit, physiognomy, and cha- 

If we would paint a portrait at once, we must load 
the colouring; but neither sweeten, nor drive, nor 
very much oil it : and if we dip the pencil in varnish 
as the work advances, this will readily enable us to 


put colour on colour, and to mix them without driv- 

The use and sight of good pictures give greater 
light into things than words can express : What hits 
one artist's understanding and temper maybe disagree- 
able to another's ; and almost all painters have taken 
different ways, though their principles were often the 

It is recommended, before we begin colouring, to 
catch the very first moments, which are commonly the 
most agreeable and most advantageous, and to keep 
them in our memory for use when we are finishing : 
for the sitter, growing tired with being long in the 
same place, loses those spirits, which, at his first sit- 
ting down gave beauty to the parts, and conveyed to 
the tint more lively blood, and a fresher colour. In 
short, we must join to truth a probable and advanta- 
geous possibility, which, far from abating likeness, 
serves rather to set it off. For this end, we ought to 
begin with observing the ground of a tint, as well 
what is in lights as in shades ; for the shades are only 
beautiful as they are proportioned to the light. We f 
must observe, if the tint be very lively, whether it 
partake of yellowness, and where that yellowness is 
placed ; because usually, towards the end of the sil- 
ting, fatigue diffuses a general yellowness, which makes 
us forget what parts were of this colour, and what 
were not, unless we had taken due notice of it before. 
For this reason, at the second sitting, the colours 
must be every where readily clapped in, and such as 
appear at the first sitting down; for these are always 
the finest. 


The surest way to judge of colours is by comparison; 
and to know a tint, nothing is better than to compare 
it with linen placed against it, or else placed next to 
the natural object, if there is occasion. We say this 
only to those who have little practised nature. 

The portrait being now supposed to be as much 
finished as you are able, nothing, remains, but, at 
some reasonable distance, to view both the picture 
and the sitter together, in order to determine with 
certainty, whether there is any thing still wanting to 
perfect the work. 

Having dwelt at some length on this head, we shall 
now direct the attention of the student to the different 
colours made use of for the purposes of painting, and 
then take a view of the principal methods of painting 
now in practice; viz. Miniature Painting, Crayon 
Painting, Enamel Painting, &c. &c, 



The method of preparing the "carious kinds used in 
Painting . 

THE various bodies employed by painters, for 
producing the difference of light and shade, may be 
termed either pigments or fluids, as they are solid or 
aqueous ; and are distinguished in their several kinds 
according to the manner of working them; as oil-colours, 
water-colours, enamel-colours, &c. but their variety 
are too numerous to be in general use ; most painters 
therefore select a set out of them, and become very un- 
justly prejudiced against those they reject. It is no 
little impediment to their improvement in the pro- 
fession, that they are not more extensively acquainted 
with all the ingredients fit for their purposes. 

Those colours which become transparent in oil, such 
as lake, Prussian blue, and brown pink, are frequently 
used without the admixture of white, or any other 
opake pigment; by which means the tint of the ground 
on which they are laid retains, in some degree, its 
force ; and the real colour, produced in painting, is the 
combined effect of both. This is called glazing; and 


the pigments endued with the property of becoming 

transparent in oil, are called glazi-ng colours. 

As colours are obtained from various substances, the 
means of preparing them are consequently various ; 
some being of a simple nature, and requiring them to 
be purified and reduced to a proper consistence or 
texture ; and others being compounds of different 
bodies, to be formed only by complex processes. It 
is therefore very difficult to give such general direc- 
tions, for the making every sort of colour as may be 
intelligible to all ; the utensils to be employed, as well 
as the methods to be pursued, being such as belong 
to different arts and trades. 

Where nevertheless, simple means, and the use of 
such utensils as are generally known, may be sufficient 
to perform what is wanting, it is best to avoid all tech- 
nical terms, and more complex methods of operation, 
adopting such a mode of instruction as may be univer-. 
sally intelligible. 



Is one of the most useful colours in every kind of 
painting ; except enamel or on glass : as it is of a 
moderate price, spends to great advantage in any kind 
of work, and stands or holds its colour extremelywell. 
It may be prepared in great perfection by the follow- 
ing process : 


"Take of quicksilver eighteen pounds, of flowers of 
sulphur six pounds; melt the sulphur in an earthen pot; 
and pour in the quicksilver gradually, being also gently 
warmed ; and stir them well together, with the small 
end of a tobacco-pipe. But if, from the effervescence, 
on adding the latter quantities of the quick-silver, they 
take fire, extinguish it by throwing a wet cloth (which 
should be had ready) over the vessel. When the mass 
is cold, powder it so that the several parts may be 
well mixed together. But it is not necessary to re 
duce it, by nicer levigation, to an impalpable state. 
Having then prepared an oblong glass body, or sub- 
limer, by coating it well with fire-lute over the whole 
surface of the glass, and working a proper rim of the 
same, round it, by which it may be hung in the fur- 
nace in such a manner that one half of it may be ex- 
posed to the fire, fix it in a proper furnace, and let the 
the powdered mass be put into it, so as to nearly fill 
the part that is within the furnace ; a piece of broken 
tile being laid over the mouth of the glass. Sublime 
then the contents, with as strong a heat as may be 
used without blowing the fumes of the vermillion out 
out of the mouth of the sublimer. When the subli- 
mation is over, which may be perceived by the abate- 
ment of the heat towards the top of the body, discon- 
tinue the fire; and, after the body is cold take it out 
of the furnace, and break it: collect then together all 
the parts of the sublimed cake, separating carefully 
from them any dross that may have been left at the 
bottom of the body, as also any lighter substance that 
may have formed in the neck, and appears to be dis- 
similar to the rest. Levigate the more perfect part ; 


and, when reduced to fine powder, it will be vermillion 
proper for use; .but on the perfectness of levigation, 
depends, in a great degree, the brightness and good- 
ness of the vermillion. In order therefore to perform 
this, it is necessary that two or three mills of different 
closeness should be employed, and the last should be 
of steel, and set as finely as possible." 

Itis common, perhaps general, for dealers to sophis- 
\ ticate vermillion with red lead. But to detect with 

certainty the fraud, both with respect to the general 
fact, and the proportion, use the following means : 

"Take a small, but known quantity of vermillion, 
suspected to be adulterated, and put it into a crucible; 
having first mixed with it about the same quantity, in 
bulk, of charcoal dust: put the crucible into a common 
fire, having first covered it with a lesser crucible inverted 
into it : and give a heat sufficient to fuse lead ; when 
the crucible, being taken out of the fire, should be well 
shaken by striking it against the ground. If the sus- 
pected adulteration has been practised, the lead will be 
found reduced to its metalline state, in the bottom of 
the crucible ; and, being weighed, and compared with 
the quantity of cinnabarjthat was. put into the crucible, 
the proportion of the adulteration may be thence cer- 
tainly known. But, if no lead be found in the crucible 
it may be safely inferred, that no red lead had been 
commixt with the vermillion." 


Is found naturally formed in the earth, though seldom 
so pure as to be fit for the uses of painting, at least 
without being purified by sublimation. The mistaken 


notion that it would stand better than vermillion, be- 
cause it was a natural production, has made it to be 
coveted by painters who are curious in colours. It is, 
however, not worth their while to be solicitous about 
it, as it never excelled the best vermillion in bright- 
ness ; and what is generally sold for it is a pigment 
compounded of quicksilver and sulphur. 


The goodness of red lead may be seen by its bright- 
ness, and a mixture of any kind will make it of a dull 
appearance. It is on this account not so liable to be 
sophisticated as white lead or vermillion. It is lead 
calcined, till it acquires a proper degree of colour, by 
exposing it with a large surface to the fire. 


Is an ochrous, earthy, or ratherirony substance, and 
is the basis of green vitriol, separated from the acid of 
the vitriol by calcination. It is a kind of orange scarlet 
colour, and rivals any of the native okers, from its 
certainty of standing and extreme strength and warmth 
either as a ground, or in the shade of carnations. It 
is useful as a colour in any kind of painting; the man- 
ner of its preparation is as follows : 

"Take of green vitriol or copperas, any quantity ; 
and being put into a crucible, of which it will fill two 
thirds, set it on a common fire to boil,(taking care that 
it do not boil over,) till the matter be nearly dry ; when 
it will be greatly diminished in quantity. Fill then 
the crucible to the same height again, and repeat the 
boiling and replenishing till the crucible be filled with 
H 2 


dry matter. Take it then from this fire, and put it into 
a wind-furnace; or, if the quantity be small, it may be 
continued in the same fire, the coals being heaped up 
round it. Let the contents be calcined there till they 
become of a red colour when cold ; which must be 
examined by taking a little of the matter out of the 
middle, and suffering it to cool ; for so long as it re- 
mains hot, the red colour will not appear, though it 
be sufficiently calcined. When duly calcined, take 
the oker out of the crucible while hot, and put it into 
water, in which the parts of the broken crucible may 
be soaked likewise, to obtain more easily what shall 
adhere to them;, and stir the oker well about in the 
water, that all the remaining vitriol may be melted 
out of it. Let it then settle, and when the water 
appears clear, pour it off, and add a fresh quantity ; 
taking out all the broken pieces of the crucible ; and 
proceed as before; repeating several times this treat- 
ment with quantities of fresh water. Then purify the 
oker from any remaining foulness by washing over ; 
and having brought it to a proper state of dryness, 
by draining off the fluid by a filter, in which the 
paper must be covered with a linen cloth, lay it to 
dry on boards." 


Is substituted in place of the real kind brought 
from the East Indies ; serving equally well for common 
purposes, giving a tint verging to scarlet, (varying 
from the true Indian red, which is greatly inclined to 
the purple,) and on account of its warm, though not 


bright colour, it is much used, as well in finer as 
coarser paintings in oil. It is afforded cheap and may 
be thus managed : 

"Take of the caput mortuum, or oker, left in the 
iron pots after the distillation of aquafortis, from nitre 
and vitriol, two parts, and of the caput mortuum or 
colcothar, left in the long necks after the distillation 
of oil of vitriol, one part; break the lumps found 
among them, and put them into tubs with a good 
quantity of water; and having let them stand for a 
day or two, frequently stirring them well about, lade 
off as much water as can be got clear from them, 
and add a fresh quantity : repeating the same treat- 
ment till all the salts be washed out and the water 
come off nearly insipid. The red powder which re- 
mains must then be washed over, and, being freed 
from the water, laid out to dry." 

"When this is designed for nicer purposes, it should 
be washed over again in basons, the gross manner of 
lading it out of one tub into another, not fitting it 
always completely to such ends." 


Is useful to house-painters, in imitating mahogany; 
is a native red oker inclining to scarlet, and easily pre- 
pared by mixing it with the colcothar orcaputmortuum, 
taken out of the aquafortis pots and washed over. It 
requires no other preparation for use than to be well 
ground with oil, unless when it is used in miniature 
painting ; when it should be washed over with the 
utmost care. 

H 3 



Resembles the Venetian red very much in colour, 
but is fouler : it is a native pigment, and is used much 
in the same state nature produces it; being dug up in 
several parts of England. No other preparation in 
needful than freeing it well from stones and filth, and 
grinding it with oil to render it fit for colouring, in the 
preparation of cloths for pictures and other coarse 

\ work. 

Js originally yellow; but when moderately cal- 

tuuii i er LM- 

It is a native oker, brought hither from Italy in the 
state in which it is naturally found. It is calcined by 
putting lumps of it either in a crucible, or naked in a 
common fire, and continuing it there till the colour be 
changed from yellow to red. It is exceedingly useful 
in oil-painting, and admits of no adulteration: it may 
be distinguished from other ochrous earths by its 


Is a bright crimson colour, of great advantage in 
painting, as well in water as varnish : the preparation 
of it is kept a secret by those who prepare it in perfec- 
tion ; and the superiority of the French carmine shows 
that the proper method is wanting in England 
hough some wrongly attribute the excellence to 
qualities in the air and water of France. There are 


several recipes for this colour, but rather than insert 
imperfect instructions for an article of great conse- 
quence, we choose to be silent 


The best of what is commonly sold, is made from 
the colour extracted from scarlet rags, and deposited 
on the cuttle-bone, which may be done in the follow- 
ing manner : 

"Take a pound of the best pearl-ashes, and, having 

dissolved them in two quarts of water, purify them by 

filtering through paper. Add then to this solution two 

more quarts of water, and having put in a pound o. 

scarlet shreds, procured of the tailors, (which must be 

entirely clean,) boil them in a pewter boiler, till the 

shreds appear to have wholly lost their scarlet colour. 

Take them out of the solution and press them well ; 

dipping them after in water and pressing them again, 

that all the fluid they had imbibed may be got from 

them, in order to be put back to the rest. Take then 

another pound of the scarlet shreds, and repeat the like 

treatment of them in the same solution ; as also a 

third and fourth pound. While this is doing dissolve a 

pound and half of cuttle-fish-bone in a pound of strong 

aquafortis in a glass receiver : adding more of the bone 

if it appear to produce any ebullition in the aquafortis : 

and, having strained off this solution through flannel, 

pour it into the other by degrees ; observing whether 

it produce any effervescence on putting in the last 

quantity : which if it do in any great degree, more of 

the cuttle-fish-bone must be dissolved in aquafortis : 

and the solution very gradually added till no ebullition 

H 4 


appear to be -raised by it in the mixture. If this be 
properly managed, the fluid will soon become clear 
and colourless, and the tinging particles extracted from 
the shreds, together with the cuttle-fish-bone, will sub- 
side to the bottom and form a crimson sediment; 
which is the lake. The water must then be poured 
off, and two gallons of hard spring water must be put 
to the lake, and well stirred about to mix them. This 
being likewise poured off, after the lake has again 
settled to the bottom, must be replaced by another two 
gallons ; and the same method must be repeated four 
or five times. But if hard water cannot be procured, 
or the lake appear too purple, half an ounce of alum 
should be added to each quantity of water before it be 
used. When the lake is -thus sufficiently freed from 
salts, it must have the water drained from it in a filter 
covered with a linen cloth, which has been so worn as 
to have no nap or down remaining on its surface. Af- 
ter the lake has been drained to a proper dryness, it 
must be dropped on clean boards, by means of a pro- 
per funnel : through which, the drops being suffered to 
pass, and rest on the board at proper distances, they 
will become small cones or pyramids : in which form 
the lake must be suffered to dry, and the preparation 
is then completed." 


The bases of this pigment is principally chalk; and 
the tinging substance extracted from Brazil, or Cam- 
peachy wood. It will not stand with oil or water, and 
is seldom employed but for the coarse work of house 
painters, or for paper hanging, unless secured from 


flying with varnish, when, if good, it may be substi- 
tuted for lake. It is prepared as follows : 

" Take brazil wood six pounds, or three pounds of 
brazil and three of peachy wood. Boil them an hour 
with three gallons of water, in which a quarter of a 
pound of alum is dissolved. Purify then the fluid by 
straining through flannel ; and put back the wood into 
the boiler with the same quantity of alum, and proceed 
as before ; repeating this the third time. Mix then 
the three quantities of tincture together ; and evapo- 
rate them till only two quarts of fluid remain ; which 
evaporation must be performed first in the pewter 
boiler, and afterwards in a balneo marioo. Prepare in 
the mean time eight pounds of chalk by washing over ; 
a pound of alum being put into the water used for 
that purpose, which, after the chalk is washed, must 
be poured off and supplied by a fresh quantity, till the 
chalk be freed from the salt formed by the alum; after 
which it must be dried to the consistence of stiff clay. 
The chalk and tincture, as above prepared, must be 
then well mixed together by grinding ; and afterward* 
laid out to dry where neither the sun or cold air can 
reach it ; though, if it can be conveniently done, a 
gentle heat may be used." 


Is a native earth, brought chiefly from Oxfordshire, 
and burnt afterwards(by those who prepare it) in large 
ovens till by calcination it becomes red. It is very 
useful as well in the more delicate as coarser paint- 
ings in oil, for it stands infallibly. For nicer pur- 

11 5 


poses it should be washed over; but for others it 
may be used in the state in which it is found in the 


ULTRAMARINE is a bright blue colour, of the high- 
est value in every kind of painting ; being equally 
serviceable in all, even in enamel. It has a transpa- 
rent effect in oil, and in some degree in water, and 
will stand without the least hazard of flying. By rea- 
son of its high price,Prussian blue has been much intro- 
duced, to the prejudice of painting in general ; as the 
skies of landscapes and many other parts of modern 
pictures, shew the loss of ultramarine, by their changing 
from a warm or clear blue, to a faint green or oliv e 
tint The methods have been continually varied by 
those who have attempted to prepare this pigment. 
The following is the best of the more modern : 

" Take the lapis lazuli, and break it into very small 
pieces, or rather a gross powder ; put it into a crucible, 
and cover it securely, to prevent the coals from falling 
amongst it. Calcine it then with a strong fire, for an 
hour, if there be any large quantity, or less time in 
proportion ; quench it, when taken out of the fire, in 
yinegar, stirring them well together, and suffer it to 
remain in that state for a day or two. Pour off then 
the vinegar, except what may be necessary for mois- 
tening the calcined lapis lazuli in grinding; which 
operation it must then undergo, in a mortar of flint or 
glass, till reduced to the greatest degree of fineness 


those means may effect. But, if it appear yet too hard 
to be easily ground, give it another short calcination, 
and quench it a second time in vinegar. The vinegar 
must then be washed off from the powder, by the put- 
ting to it several successive quantities of dean water; 
each of which must be poured off when the lapis 
lazuli has been well stirred about in them, and is 
again settled to the bottom. It must then be ground 
on a porphyry stone, with a mullar, till it be perfectly 
impalpable, and then dried ; in which state it is duly 
prepared to mix with the following cement. Take of 
Burgundy pitch nine ounces of white resin, and Ve- 
netian turpentine, six ounces of virgin wax one ounce 
and half and of linseed oil one ounce and a quarter ; 
mix them together by melting in a pipkin over the 
nre : and suffer them to boil till they acquire so stiff a 
consistence, that being dropt into water, while of this 
boiling heat, they will not spread on the surface of it, 
but form in roundish mass or lump. The cement 
being thus formed may be poured out of the pipkin in 
the water, and made into cakes or rolls for use. Of 
this cement, take an equal weight with that of the 
calcined lapis lazuli and melt it in a glazed earthen 
pipkin ; but not so as to render it too fluid. Then add 
to it the calcined matter by very slow degrees ; stir- 
ring them together with an ivory spatula, till the 
whole appear perfectly mixed. Being thus mixed, 
heat the composition to a something greater degree, 
and cast it into a large bason full of cold water. 
When it has cooled to a consistence to bear such treat- 
ment, knead it well like the dough of bread, with the 
hands rubbed over with linseed oil, till all the part* 



be throroughly incorporated with each other. Then 
make the mass into a cake, which may be either kept 
till some other convenient time in cold water, or 
immediately proceeded with in the following manner: 
put the cake into an earthen dish or bason, the bottom 
of which should be rubbed with linseed oil : and pour 
on it water of the warmth of blood. Let it stand a 
quarter of an hour; and, as the water softens the 
cake, it will let loose the finest part of the calcined 
matter, which, on gently stirring the water, but with- 
out breaking the cake, or separating it into lesser 
parts, will be suspended in the water, and must be 
poured off with it into another vessel. The quantity 
of water must be then renewed, and the same opera- 
tion repeated a second or third time ; and, as the mass 
appears slack in affording the colour, it must be 
moved and stirred, in the manner of kneading, with 
the ivory spatula, but not broken into fragments, or 
small parts ; and when so much of the colour is ex- 
tracted, as to render it necessary for the obtaining 
more, the heat of the water must be increased to the 
greatest degree. The quantities of the calcined mat- 
ter (which is now the ultramarine) that were first 
washed off, and appear of the same degree of deepness 
and brightness, may be put together ; and the same 
of those of the second degree : the last washings mak- 
ing a third. The water being then poured off from 
each of these parcels, put on a lixivium formed of two 
ounces of salt of tartar, or pearl-ashes, dissolved in a 
pint of water, and filtered through paper, after the 
solution is cold. This lixivium must be put en boil- 
ing hot, and the ultramarine stirred well about in it j 


and then the mixture set to cool. The powder being 
subsided, the clear lixivium must be poured off, and 
clean water put in its place; which must be repeated 
till the whole of the salts of the lixivium are washed 
away. The ultramarine must afterwards be dried ; 
and will be then duly prepared for use." 

Ultramarine is subject to be adulterated, on account 
of its great price. This is frequently done by a pre- 
cipitation of copper, made by alkaline salt, and is very 
injurious ; because the magUtery of copper (if the 
ultramarine sophisticated with it be used in painting, 
either with oil or water) will change its hue and turn 
black. And, in enamel painting, as soon as fluxed, it 
will become a green, and consequently make the effect 
of the ultramarine vary from what is intended. This 
fraud may be easily detected by pouring some diluted 
spirit of nitre on a small quantity ; which, if there be 
any copper, will soon dissolve, and form a greenish 
blue solution. 


After the ultramarine has been extracted from the 
lapis lazuli, the residuum or remains form this pig- 
ment. And when the operation of extracting the 
colour has not succeeded well, a considerable share 
of the ultramarine is left behind with the recrement, 
and greatly enhances the worth of the ashes ; for of 
course the value of the latter is inferior to the former, 
but it is still subject to adulteration, which may be 
discovered by putting some of it into a small quantity 
of spirit of nitre, and if there be any copper in it, it 
will be tinged green. It is prepared as follows : 


" Take the cement of the ultramarine, which re- 
mains after the colour is extracted, and mix it with 
four times its weight of linseed oil. Let the mixture 
be set in a glazed pipkin over the fire, and when it is 
thus boiled a short time, put it into a glass vessel 
sufficiently large to contain it, of a cylindrical figure ; 
of which vessel the diameter must be small in propor- 
tion to the length. But care must be taken, that the 
matter, when put in this glass, be cool enough not to 
endanger the breaking it. This glass must then be 
put into a balneum mariffi, which rmistbe made as hot 
as possible without boiling, and kept there till the 
colour appears to be all subsided to the bottom. 
The oil must then be poured off, till the colour ap- 
pears to rise with it ; and the remainder, with the 
colour in it, must be put in another glass of the 
same kind with as much fresh oil as will rise five or 
six inches above the colour. This class must be 
treated in the same manner as the first: observing 
when the colour has subsided, the oil must be poured 
off, and a fresh quantity put in its place. This having 
been likewise poured off, the colour must then be 
well washed, to free it from the remaining oil, first 
in boiling water, and afterwards in some of the lixi- 
vium abovementioned, made boiling hot also. As 
much of the lixivium being poured off, when the 
colour has subsided, as can be separated from it that 
way, the colour must be thoroughly freed from the 
remainder by frequent ablutions with clean water ; 
after which the water must be taken off by the means 
above directed for the ultramarine, till the matter be 
of a proper degree of moisture for grinding. It must 


then be thoroughly well ground on a porphyry, and 
washed over; that all the harder and insufficiently 
calcined parts may be reduced to an impalpable pow- 
der ; in order to which, the remaining grosser parts, 
after the finer have been separated by the washing 
over, must be again ground till the whole be perfectly 
fine. The same means must be afterwards used to 
bring th ashes to a dry powder, that were before 
directed for the ultramarine." 


Is the earth of alum, combined with the fixed sulphur 
of animal or vegetable coal ; and may be made from 
almost any animal substance ; but it is generally made 
of the coal of blood only. It is useful in all kinds of 
painting,save enamel ; and prepared to different degrees 
of brightness and strength. The common kind found 
in the shops, and sold at very low prices, can be little 
depended upon in paintings of consequence ; therefore 
it should be prepared perfect, and in the true manner : 
and then,considering the high price of ultramarine and 
the foulness of the indigo, it may be truly deemed a 
very valuable acquisition to the art of painting. 

" Take of blood any quantity ; and evaporate it to 
perfect dryness. Of this dry blood, powdered, take six 
pounds, and of the best pearl-ashes two pounds : mix 
them well together in a glass or stone mortar; and then 
put the mixt matter into large crucibles or earthen pots, 
and calcine it in a furnace; the top of the crucible or pot 
being coveredwith a tile, or other such convenient thing, 
but not luted. The calcination should be continued, so 


long as any flame appears to issue from the matter; or 
rather till the flame become slender and blue : for if the 
fire be very strong, a small flame would arise for a very 
long time, and a great part of the tinging matter would 
be dissipated and lost. When the matter has been suffi- 
ciently calcinedjtake the vessels which contain it out of 
the fire ; and, as quickly as possible, throw it into two 
or three gallons of water : and, as it soaks there, break 
it with a wooden spatula, that no lumps may remain. 
Put it then in a proper tin vessel, and boil it for the 
space of three quarters of an hour or more. Filter it 
while hot through paper in tincullenders, andpasssome 
water through thefilter when it is quite dry, to wash out 
the remainder of the lixivium of the blood and pearl- 
ashes ; the earth remaining in the filter may be then 
thrown away. In the mean time, dissolve of clean 
alum four pounds, and of green vitriol or copperas two 
pounds, in three gallons of water. Add this solution 
gradually to the filtered lixivium, so long as any effer- 
vescence appears to rise on the mixture ; but, when 
no ebullition or ferment follows the admixture, cease to 
put in more. Let the mixture then stand at rest, and 
a green powder will be precipitated : from which, when 
it has thoroughly subsided, the clear part of the fluid 
must be poured off, and freshwater put in its place,and 
stirred well about with the green powder ; and, after a 
proper time of settling, this water must be poured off 
like the first. Take then of spirit of salt double the 
weight of the green vitriol, which was contained in the 
quantity of solution of vitriol and alum, added to the 
lixivium, which will soon turn the green matter to a 
blue colour; and, after some time, add a proper quanti- 


ty of water, and wash the colour in the same manner 
as has been directed for lake, &c. and when properly 
washed, proceed in the same manner to dry it in lumps 
of convenient size." 

The brightness, deepness, and coolness of Prussian 
blue, are proofs of its goodness ; for with these quali- 
ties it may be depended upon in standing well. So- 
phistication, or any thing amiss in the process, may 
be seen by its being more foul and purple. 


Is formed by adding a due proportion of chalk to a 
solution of copper, made by refiners in precipitating the 
silver from the aquafortis, in the operation called part- 
ing. Verditer is to be had at a cheap rate from the re- 
finers, who are at no expence in making it, but that of 
the chalk and labour. The manner in which it may be 
best done by them is as follows : 

"Take any quantity of chalk, and having rendered 
it sufficiently fine by washing over carefully, add it 
gradually to the solution of copper,so long as any change 
appears to be produced by it from the ebullition excited, 
or the due proportion may be perceived by the fluid 
losing its green tinge and becoming colourless. Let it 
then stand at re st till the sediment be subsided, and 
pour off the clear part of the fluid from the powder; 
adding in its place clean water, which must be several 
times renewed till the salts be entirely washed out. 
The sediment, which is the verditer, must be after- 
wards freed from the fluid by filtering through paper 
covered with a cloth, and laid out in lumps of a 
middling size to dry." 


Those who desire to make verditer themselves, may 
prepare the solution of copper, by adding copper filings 
gradually to aquafortis of any kind, putting plates of 
copper in it ; and then proceeding as is above direct- 
ed for the refiner's solution. 


If enquiry is made at the colour shops for this article, 
nothing is to be found under the name but common 
verditer, or a species of it where the precipitation of 
the copper appears to be made in part upon starch as 
well as chalk. It may be prepared as follows : 

" Take of the refiner's solution of copper made in the 
precipitation of silver from the spirit of nitre : or dis- 
iClv'e copper in spirits of nitre or aquafortis, by throw- 
ing in filings or putting slips of copper gradually, till 
all effervescence cease, Add to it of starch finely pow* 
dered, the proportion of one fifth or sixth of the weight 
of the copper dissolved. Make then a solution of pearl- 
ashes, and filter it; and put gradually, to the solution 
of copper, as much as will precipitate the whole of the 
copper; which may be known by the fluids becoming 
clear and colourless, though before highly tinged with 
green. Wash the powder, which will be precipitated 
in the manner directed for lake, &c. and, when it is so 
well drained of water by means of a filter, as to be of a 
proper consistence, grind the whole well together, and 
lay it out to dry." 


This was formerly almost the only blue colour used 
in painting. It is made in the Spanish West Indies, 


by means of putrefaction from certain plants, and a co- 
agulationby the air. It cannot(as far as is hither known) 
be prepared in those colder climates, on account of the 
tender nature of the plants which produce it. The in- 
digo brought from the French, or our own plantations, is 
foul, and greatly inferior in brightness, to that formerly 
imported hither from the Spaniards, it being equal to 
the Prussian blue for some purposes ; and there is no 
other preparation necessary to using it in painting, ex- 
cept a perfect levigation. 

Smalt is made from glass ground to a powder, and 

coloured ;l'u iauc? ; o? prepared frcir. fluxing to the 

proportion of glass, one seventh part of zafFer, or more 
or less, according to the degree of deepness required. 
It will not work with either brush or pencil ; but, by 
strewing it upon any ground of oil-paint while wet, it 
makes a bright blue shining surface, proper for large 
sun-dials, and other such applications. In enamel- 
painting, and in painting on glass, it is of great use. 


At present several compositions of indigo andverdi- 
ter with chalk, and other cheap substances, are sold in 
this name ; but the true kind is smalt, reduced to a fine 
powder by levigation. From its unsuitable texture, it 
is now greatly disused, or it makes a light warm blue 
colour ; it was formerly used in oil, but more frequent- 
ly in water-colours. 



Water painting is the only kind in which this can 
be used, and as it is brought from Holland at a very 
cheap rate, it were almost needless to give the prepara- 
tion. But if any are desirous, for curiosity, to know 
the process, it is formed from archal, a species of 
moss, brought from the Canary and Cape de Verd 
Islands, and prepared as follows : 

" Add quick lime and putrified urine, or spirit of 
urine distilled from lime, to the archal, previously 
bruised by grinding. This mixture must be suffered 
to stand till it acquires a very blue colour. After 
which the fluid must be suffered to evaporate, and 
the remaining mass, when it is of the consistence of 
a paste, must be laid on boards to dry in square 

If it is used in miniature paintings, care must be ta- 
ken of the approach of acid, for that changes it in- 
stantly from blue to red; though it will stand if no 
such accident intervene. 


KING'S YELLOW when prepared well (which must be 
done by mixing sulphur and arsenic by sublimation) is 
an extremely bright colour, and a true yellow ; but 
when mixed with white lead, and several other pig- 
ments, its colour flies or changes ; this defect, joined to 
its nauseous smell, and the notion of its being a strong 


poison, renders itunpleasing, and causes it to be reject- 
ed by many. Nevertheless, it may be used on many 
occasions, with great advantage, not only as a yellow, 
but by mixing it with blue pigments, and forming a 
green. King's yellow is prepared as follows : 

" Take of arsenic powdered, and flowers of sulphur, 
in the proportion of twenty of the first to one of the 
second ; and having put them into a sublimer, sub- 
lime them in a sand heat. The operation being 
over, the king's yellow will be found in the upper 
part of the glass, which must be carefully separated 
from any caput mortuum, or foal parts that may be 
found in the glass with it. It must be afterwards 
reduced to an equal power by levigation." 


The neighbourhood of Naples is said to produce this 
pigment naturally ; of the truth of this we are dubious, 
but certain that it is brought from abroad. It is a yel- 
low rather inclining to the orange : seldom used but in 
oil painting, where it is generally found to stand well. 
It is brighter than other yellows at present in use, ex- 
cept the king's yellow ; but if it touch iron along with 
the least watery moisture, it will be changed by it, for 
which reason care should be taken to employ an ivory 
spatula, instead of a pallet knife, during the grinding of 
it with oil, which is the only preparation practised on, 
it, as it does not well bear levigation with water. 


The substance of this is a mineral earth, found in 
different places, of various degrees of purity. There is 


no other preparation necessary but levigation, and 
freeing it properly from dirt and other matter. It is a 
valuable colour, being a true yellow that will not fly 
in the least, and its texture suits it for all kinds of 
painting. Notwithstanding its utility it ought to be 
of low price. 


As this colour will not bear well to be worked in oil, 
nor can be depended upon with regard to its standing, 
it is used principally for coarser purposes in water, and 
is sometimes prepared in the same manner with starch 
and white lead ; but the following preparation is very 
cheap and easy, and makes it to perfection : 

" Take of French berries one pound, and of turme- 
ric root powdered four ounces ; boil them in a gallon 
of water two hours, and then strain off the tincture 
through flannel, and boil it again with an ounce of 
alum till it be evaporated to one quart. Prepare in 
the mean time four pounds of chalk, by washing it 
over, and afterwards drying it, and mix the chalk 
with the tincture, by grinding them together; and 
then lay out the Dutch pink thus made to dry on 

As it should be a full gold coloured yellow and 
very bright, any adulteration may be discovered by 
the eye. 


Prepare this in the same manner, and with the same 
ingredients as the Dutch, only increasing the quantity 


of chalk, to render it of an inferior quality, it beino- 
the same, only lighter and coarser. 


The only kind fit for use in oil painting is prepared 
in the following manner : 

" Take of French berries one pound, boil them with 
a gallon of water for an hour; and having strained off 
the fluid, add to it two pounds of pearl-ashes, dissolved 
and purified by filtering through paper. Precipitate 
with alum dissolved in water, by adding 1 the solution 
gradually, so long as any ebullition shall appear to be 
raised in thp mixture. When the sediment has tho- 
roughly subsided, pour off the water from it, and wash 
it with several renewed quantities of water, proceeding 
as has been before directed in the case of the lake, &c. 
drain off the remaining fluid in a filter with a paper co- 
vered with a linen cloth ; and, lastly, dry it on boards 
in small square pieces. 1 ' 


No yellow is of greater service in water colours, 
easily dissolved to a milky consistence, from the state 
in which it arrives. It is a gum produced in the East 
Indies, and nothing but the addition of water is want- 
ing to prepare it for use. 


As this is not a very bright colour it is little used ; 
or it will stand perfectly in oil or in water; it works 
with the pencil better than most other pigments, and 


certainly might be made very useful by putting flake 
white, or white lead, on an earthen or stone dish before 
a strong fire ; and continuing it there till the colour be 
sufficiently yellow. The calcination being finished, 
the parts which are of the desired tint must be picked 
out from the rest and put together. For with the 
greatest care, it is difficult to calcine the whole equally. 
Grinding with oil is the only preparation necessary to 
the using of it. 


It is generally disagreeable to meddle with this, on 
account of its nauseous smell and poisonous quality; 
being a fossil body composed of arsenic and sulphur' 
with a mixture frequently of lead, and sometimes other 
metals. In its unrefined state it is only useful to colour 
the matted bottoms of chairs,,or other coarse work; but 
if purified by sublimation it becomes king's yellow, 


The real kind are found in the gall bladder or like 
ducts of beasts ; and require nothing more than rub- 
bing with water (as gamboge) to dissolve them to a 
dark warm yellow. But as these are not always to be 
procured, a fictitious kind, of equal service, may be 
made as follows : 

" Take a quart of the bile of oxen, as frefeh as possi- 
ble. Put it into a proper pewter vessel, and set it to 
boil in a balneo marise: having added to it a quarter of 
an ounce of clear gum aiabic. Evaporate the whole to 
about an eighth; and then remove it into a china cup 
or bason of proper size, and evaporate it to dryness ; 


collecting it into a mass as it becomes of a stiff con- 

TERRA di SIENNA unburnt. 

Mention has been made of this pigment being a na- 
tive ochrous earth, brought from Italy; that calcination 
changes it from yellow to red ; therefore those that 
choose to use it as a yellow, should take care to have it 
extremely well levigated, as it will serve for a deeper 
shade by many degrees than any of the other okers 
and is of a superior brightness. 


This for use is much such another colour in yellow 
as vermilion in red, and will stand equally well with 
that. It is a preparation of mercury, by calcining it 
together with oil of vitriol, and is much brighter than 
any other yellow used in oil, except king's yellow. 
The preparation : 

" Take of pure quicksilver, and oil of vitriol, each 
six pounds. Put them into a retort, to which, (being, 
placed in a sand bath), fit on a receiver, and distil them 
with a strong fire, while any fumes appear to rise into 
the receiver : urging it at last with as great a heat as 
the furnace will bear. When the retort is again cold, 
remove it out of the sand bath : and, having broken it, 
take the white mass, which will be found at the bottom 
of it, and break it to a gross powder, and having put it 
in a glass mortar, pour water on it, which will immedi- 
ately convert it to a yellow colour. Let it next be 
thoroughly ground in this mortar, with water, and af- 
terwards washed with several successive quantities. U 


must then be thoroughly well levigated on a stone, 
and dried." 

The YELLOW WASH, from the French berries. 

11 Take a pound of the French berries, and put to 
them a gallon of water, with half an ounce of alum ; 
boil them an hour in a pewter vessel, and then filter 
off the fluid, through paper, if it be designed for nicer 
purposes, or flannel for more ordinary. Put them 
again into the boiler, and evaporate the fluid till the 
colour appears of the strength desired; or part may be 
taken out while less strong, and the rest evaporated 
to a proper body." 

It may be used in water as a washing colour, and is 
applicable to many material purposes, as it may be 
made of almost any degree of deepness. 


The gum made from the turmeric-root dissolved in 
water, serves for the same purposes of the yellow ber- 
ry-wash ; but to procure a bright tincture, it must be 
dissolved in spirit instead of water, by the following 
method : 

" Take two ounces of proof spirit, and add to it one 
ounce of water. Being put into a proper phial, add 
two drams of turmeric root in powder. Shake them 
well together, and let them stand three or four days, 
repeating the shaking as often as convenient, and a 
strong tincture will thus be obtained." 

It makes a good shade for gamboge or other light 


bright yellows : by pouring hot water on the best Eng- 
lish saffron, in a proper phial or other vessel; which 
should be placed for some time in a heat next to that 
which would make water boil : and the tincture should 
then be filtered from the dregs through a piece of 
linen cloth. 


Take an ounce of zedoary-root, and boil it in a quart 
of water till the water appears sufficiently tinged to g, 
yellow : strain it through linen and it will be a stronge^ 
colour than can be made of turmeric without spirits of 
wine, and is valuable for many purposes in painting 
with water colours, as flowers, yellow draperies, &c. 



LET the pulp of grapes or any such acid remain upon 
copper, and the rust, formed by its corrosive action, is 
verdigrise. It is brought from France and Italy hi- 
ther, and makes a blue-green colour in paint; but will 
not stand in oil. It should have a small admixture 
of yellow to render it a true green. 


" Take of the best verdigrise four ounces, and of 
distilled vinegar two quarts. The verdigrise being 
i 2 


well pounded, let them be put into a circulating vessel, 
that may be formed of a mattrass (which is a round 
bodied glass, with a long straight neck) and a Florence 
flask; which must have its neck inverted into the 
mattrass, the thick end being broken off. This circu- 
lating vessel must be placed in a gentle sand-heat, or 
rather warm situation, where it must continue, being 
frequently shaken, till the vinegar has dissolved as 
much as it can of the verdigrise. Remove the verdi- 
grise and vinegar then into a proper glass for decant- 
ing the fluid, when it shall become clear from the se- 
diment ; and when it has stood a due time to settle, 
let it be carefully poured off and evaporated to about 
half a pint ; which is best done with a sand-heat, in a 
glass body or cucurbit, having its neck cut off to form 
a wide mouth. It may be set to shoot in the same 
vessel, or in a glass receiver with a wide neck ; and 
when the chrystals are formed, they must be taken 
out and carefully dried in the shade. 

" A fresh proportipn of vinegar may be added to the 
remains of the verdigrise, and at the same time the 
first quantity left undissolved; and the mothers, or 
fluid remaining after the chrystals were formed, may 
be put into it ; by which means, the other parts of the 
process being repeated, a second quantity of the 
chrystals may be obtained." 

The chrystals made thus are of a bright green co- 
lour, and if used with varnish so as to stand, have a 
fine effect ; but they will not hold their colour very 
well in oil, being apt to turn black. 

Is made of the juice of buckthorn berries, and is 


very useful m water painting, as a washing colour, 
making a strong and prety deep stain. It is prepared 
as follows : 

" Take any quantity of buckthorn berries before 
they are ripe, and press out juice in such a press as is 
used for making cyder or verjuice; or by any other 
method. Strain this juice through flannel, then let 
it stand to settle ; and when it has stood a proper time, 
decant off the clearer part of the fluid from the sedi- 
ment. Put this juice into a stone or earthen vessel, 
and evaporate it till it begins to grow of a thick con- 
sistence ; then remove it into a pewter vessel, and finish 
the evaporation in balneo marise, collecting the mat- 
ter into one mass as it acquires a proper consistence." 


This colour is much neglected, and seems almost 
wholly laid aside, or it has nearly all the uses in its 
colour that the Prussian blue has, only not so bright; 
nor will it stand so well; yet it might be of advantage 
in many kinds of painting. To make it, 

" Proceed in all points as in the process given for the 
Prussian blue, till the solution of alum and vitriol be 
mixed with that of the pearl-ashes and sulphur of the 
coal, and the green precipitation made. Then, instead 
of adding the spirit of salt, omit any further mixture, 
and go on to wash the sediment, which is the Prussian 
green; and afterwards dry it, in the same manner as 
is directed for the blue." 


This is supposed to be a native earth, brought from 
i 3 


abroad, of a coarse texture. It requires to be well 
levigated and washed over ; but no other preparation 
is necessary previous to its use. 



PERHAPS it may be no easy matter to procure this 
colour true ; for it is a native ochrous earth, very use- 
ful in oil, in its compounded state, as well for force in 
its effect as certainty of standing. But the fictitious 
kind, now fallaciously called by its name, has no good 
property as a purple; in short, it is varied into a 
broken orange, and rejected by most colourmen, and 
painters. The true kind needs no other preparation 
than grinding or washing over. 


This may be made in a very easy manner by those 
who cannot procure it of the manufacturers ; and is an 
extreme bright purple fluid, but apt to dry to a red- 
dish brown, and therefore much disused at present. 
To prepare it, 

" Take an ounce of the archal weed or moss, as it 
is sold at the dry-salters; and, having bruised it well, 
put it into a glass phial with half a pint of weak spirit 
of sal ammoniacus distilled with lime. Stop the phial 
close, and leave the archal to infuse till a strong 
bluish purple tincture be formed.'' 




AMONG the variety of methods for preparing this 
pigment, the following is one of the best : 

" Take of French berries one pound ; of fustic wood 
in chips half a pound, and of pearl-ashes one pound. 
Boil them in a tin boiler, with a gallon and a half of 
water, for an hour ; and then strain off the tincture 
through flannel while the fluid is boiling hot. Having 
prepared in the mean time, a solution of a pound and a 
half of alum, put it gradually to the tincture, so long as 
an ebullition shall appear. Proceed then to wash the 
sediment as in the manner directed for the lakes ; and 
being brought, by filtering through paper with a linen 
cloth, to a proper consistence, dry it on boards in 
square pieces." 

Its goodness may be judged of by its transparency, 
and has every quality but that of standing, but this 
can only be known on trial. 


This colour is extremely serviceable in water, if 
procured good, which may be done by the following 
recipe : 

" Take any quantity of soot of dry wood, but let it 

be of beech wherever that can be procured. Put it 

into water in the proportion of two pounds to a gaHon ; 

and boil them half an hour. Then, after the fluid has 



stood some little time to settle, but while yet hot, pou 
off the clearer part from the earthy sediment at the 
bottom ; and if, on standing longer, it forms anothe r 
earthy sediment, repeat the same method : but this 
should be done only while the fluid remains hot. 
Evaporate then the fluid to dryness, and what remains 
will be good bistre, if the soot was of a proper kind." 


After procuring this subsistence of fossil earth from 
the colourmen, which may be done at a very low price, 
care should be taken to have it well levigated and 
washed over ; when it may be used for a foul orange 
colour, and may be depended on for standing well. 


Where the fore-ground of a water painting requires 
to be pretty strong, the Cologn earth may be used to 
advantage. It requires no preparation, save grinding 
perfectly fine with water ; it being of a fossil substance 
and a dark blackish brown colour. 

A full brown colour is produced from this gummy 
substance, by dissolving it with water; but it will not 
mix well with oil. It is extracted from some kind of 
vegetable, and its goodness may be distinguished by 
the clearness of its colour. 


Has the quality of the other ochrous earthy sub- 
stances, joined to that of drying better, which occa- 


sions it to be much used in making drying oils, japan- 
ner's gold size, and the black oil lacker. In painting, 
some few use it with water; but before it is fit for that 
purpose it should be burnt, levigated and washed 


There is an additional advantage in this colour, when 
used in lieu of brown pink. It is secure from flying, 
and retains in drying a transparent brown. If it can 
be procured pure, as it is found in the earth in Asia, it 
ic certainly very useful; but it is a butuminous matter 
of a consistence like tar, and liable to be adulterated 
with turpentine and other cheap balsamic substances ; 
which fraud is not easy to be detected, unless by the 
mixture taking off the native transparent, and deep 
brown colour, which the eye may discover. 


The liquorice root is extracted by a decoction in 
water, and then evaporated to a well known consis- 
tence. In miniature painting it is at this time much 
used. It supplies the place of bistre in a great mea- 
sure, though it is inferior; but there is no trouble in 
procuring, nor process in preparing the liquorice that 
is ever wanted in England. 


WHITE FLAKEIS brought here from Italy: It is used 
for oil or varnish painting, where a very clean white is 


required ; and is a kind of ceruss or lead corroded by 

There is a great deal sold at the colour shops ready 
prepared ; that is, the true kind levigated, mixed with 
starch or some such substance. But it is best to pro- 
cure the white flake in a lump, and then levigate it, 
and if it be thought proper, add any quantity of starch 
in the grinding, that may render it suitable to work 


Is a corrosion by acid from plates of lead, prepared 
by those who are concerned in it at a low price. It is 
much employed in common purposes of painting, and 
may be used in nicer ; but will require washing over, 
and then it is little inferior to flake white. Notwith- 
standing its cheapness, it is frequently adulterated by 
the makers or wholesale dealers, by adding chalk or 
talc, which may be seen by comparing a pure piece 
with a suspected one ; as the fraud will appear by the 
difference of the weight. But to prove it more exactly 
use the following means : 

"Take an ounce of the white lead suspected; and 
mix it well with about half an ounce of pearl-ashes, 
or of any fixed alkeline salt, and about a quarter of an 
ounce of charcoal dust ; and having put them into a 
crucible, give them a strong heat. The lead will by 
this means be reduced to its metallic state; and, being 
weighed, will shew, by what it may fall short of the 
weight of an ounce, the proportion of the adulteration; 
about a tenth part being allowed for the corroding 
acid which formed part of the white lead." 



"Take horn, or bones, and burn them in any com- 
mon fire till they become a coal, or are calcined to some 
degree of whiteness. Then having freed them care- 
fully from any coal or filth, reduce them to gross pow- 
der ; and put them upon a vessel made in form of a 
common earthen dish, of ground crucibles and Stour- 
bridge clay, and well dried; and procure this to be 
placed in a tobacco-pipe-maker's or potter's furnace, 
during the time they keep their pots or pipes in the 
fire. The earth of the horn or bones being thus tho- 
roughly calcined, it must be very well levigated with 
water ; and it will be yet further improved by being 
carefully washed over." 

This is a pure white, nor will change by either air or 
time; for the nicest purposes it is much used in water 
painting, and will not turn black in the manner flake 
white and white lead sometimes will. It is therefore 
preferred by the more experienced painters. 


Is prepared by drying or calcining oyster shells at a 
fire, and taking that part of the powder that is of a 
perfect whiteness, levigating it well on a stone, and 
washing it over. It is serviceable in miniature paint- 

May be used in water colours from the following 
preparation : 


" Take a pound of chalk, and soak it well in water. 
Then wash over all the fine part, and having poured 
off the first water, add another quantity, in which two 
ounces of alum is dissolved. Let them stand for a day 
or two, stirring the chalk once in six or eight hours. 
Wash then the chalk again over, till it be rendered per- 
fectly fine ; and pour off as much of the water as can 
be separated from the chalk by that means, taking off 
the remainder of the dissolved alum, by several re- 
newed quantities of fresh water. After the last water 
is poured off, put the chalk into one of the cullender 
filters, with a linen cloth over the paper ; and when 
the moisture has been sufficiently drained off from it, 
lay out in lumps to dry on a proper board.'' 


Is made of the clear shell when the inner skin is 
peeled off, levigated to powder of a proper fineness, 
and washed over. It is used by some in water colours 
and preferred to flake white. 



There is no other preparation than procuring it good 
from burning oil in a confined place, and collecting 
the soot. It mixes well either with oil or water, and 
is esteemed as the principal black in all nicer kinds 
of painting. 



'Take plates, chips, or shavings of ivory, and soak 
them in hot linseed oil; or, if filings are to be more 
easily procured, they may be used moistened with hot 
oil. Put them into a vessel which will bear the fire, 
covering them with a sort of lid made of clay and sand ; 
which should be dried, and the cracks repaired before 
the vessel be put into the fire. Procure this vessel to 
be placed in a tobacco-pipe-maker's or potter's furnace, 
or any other such fire ; and let it remain there during 
one of their heats. When it shall be taken out, the 
ivory will be burnt properly ; and must be afterwards 
thoroughly well levigated on the stone with water; or 
it should, indeed, to have it perfectly good, be also 
washed over." 

It is not so much used as lamp black, owing perhaps, 
to its drying slowly in oil, or to the frequent adulte- 
rations with charcoal dust, which renders it of a blue 
cast : otherwise it is, if genuinely prepared from the 
ivory, a full clear black, and extremely serviceable. 


The true Indian ink is imported from China, and is 
of a consistence, when dissolved with water, extremely 
well adapted to the pencil. It is much used in minia- 
ture painting, and drawing of small kinds. There is 
a sort frequently sold for it made as follows : 

"Take of isinglass six ounces ; reduce it to a size, by 
dissolving over the fire in double its weight of water. 
Take then of Spanish liquorice one ounce : and dissolve 


it also in double its weight of water ; and grind up 
with it an ounce of ivory black, prepared as we have 
directed. Add this mixture to the size while hot; and 
stir the whole together till all the ingredients be tho- 
roughly incorporated. Then evaporate away the 
water in a balneo marife, and cast the remaining 
composition into leaden moulds greased ; or make it 
up in any other form/' 

The preceding are the chief of the substances there 
will be occasion to mention in drawing and painting ; 
but crayon and enamel colours will be treated of in 
their places. 

Those persons who are accustomed to paint in oils, 
generally purchase their colours ready prepared in blad- 
ders; a complete set of which, with a pallette, and re- 
quisites for painting may be procured at the colour- 

Complete sets of water-colours are also sold in boxes, 
with pencils, &c. for miniature painting, drawing, &c. 
The price from eight shillings to three guineas. 

As the oil colours prepared in bladders, if they are 
kept long, become useless ; and as those who are not 
professed artists seldom paint so much as to use them 
without great waste, it became a desideratum that some 
method should be found to render them more durable : 
this Mr. Blackman has accomplished ; and at the same 
time has made them so portable, that they can be used 
with equal ease, with the common water colour cakes. 
We give the method of preparing them from Vol. VIl. 
of the trancactions of the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. 



Take of the clearest gum mastick, reduced to fine 
powder, four ounces ; of spirit of turpentine, one pint, 
mix them together in a bottle, stirring them frequently 
till the mastick is dissolved : if it is wanted in haste, 
some heat may be applied, but the solution is best 
when made cold. Let the colours to be made use of, 
be the best that can be procured, taking care, that by 
washing, &c. they are brought to the greatest degree of 
fineness possible. When the colours are dry, grind 
them on a hard close stone (porphyry is the best) in 
spirit of turpentine, adding a small quantity of the 
mastick varnish ; let the colours so ground become again 
dry ; then prepare the composition for forming them 
into c.akes, in the following manner: Procure some of 
the purest and whitest spermaceti you can obtain ; 
melt it over a gentle fire, in a clean earthen vessel ; 
when fluid, add to it one third of its weight of pure 
poppy oil, and stir the whole well together; these things 
being in readiness, place the stone on which your co- 
lours were ground on a frame or support; and, by 
means of a charcoal fire under it, make the stone warm; 
next grind your colour fine with a muller; then, adding 
a sufficient quantity of the mixture of poppy oil and 
spermaceti, work the whole together with the muller 
to a proper consistence ; take then a piece of a fit size 
for the cake you intend to make; roll it into a ball, put 
it into a mould, press it, and it will be complete. 

When these cakes are to be used, they must be 
rubbed down in poppy or other oil, or in a mixture of 
spirit of turpentine and oil, as may best suit the con- 
venience or intention of the artist. 



THE different modes of painting now in use are: 

Oilpainting; preferable to all other methods, as it 
admits of a perfect gradation of tints in the most dura- 
ble of all materials, except those of 

Mosaic painting; in which an imitation of objects is 
produced by the junction of a great number of small 
pieces of natural marble of different colours fixed in 
stucco, or mortar, so that if the mortar is well prepared, 
the monuments of this art may descend to the most 
remote ages. Some of the works of the great Italian 
masters have been excellently copied in mosaic, and 
are to be seen in St. Peter's church at Rome. 

Fresco painting; which is performed with colours de- 
luted in water, and laid on a wall newly plaistered, 
with which they incorporate, and are sometimes as 
durable as the stucco itself. 

Crayon painting; in which colours, either simple or 
compound, are ground in water mixed with gum, and 
made into small rolls of hard paste, which are then 
used on paper or parchment. 

Miniature painting; which consists of colours pre- 
pared with water or gum, and laid ou vellum or ivory. 
It is of course confined to works of a very small size. 

Enamel painting; which is performed on copper or 
gold, with mineral colours, dried by fire. This method 
is also very durable. 


Wax, or encaustic painting ; performed by the mix- 
ture of wax with the varnish and colours. 

Painting on glass ; too well known to need descrip- 
tion, and performed by various methods. 

Painting in distemper ; which is with colours mixed 
with size, whites of eggs, or any thin glutinous sub- 
stance, and used on paper, linen, silk, board, or 

Painting in "water colours, more properly called limn- 
ing: it is performed with colours mixed with water, 
gum, size, paste, &c. on paper, silk, and various other 

To these is to be added elydoric painting, consisting 
of a mixed use of oil-colours and water. 

Our limits will not permit us to present our readers 
with a detailed account of the whole of these modes 
of practising this delightful art; we shall therefore 
only treat of those we deem most important and that 
in our idea may most tend to the general instruction 
of the student. 


THE principal advantage of oil-painting over other 
methods consists in the colours drying less speedily, so 
that it allows the painter to finish, smooth, and retouch 
his works, with greater care and precision. The co- 
lours, also being more blended^togetherj produce mort 
agreeable gradations, and a more delicate effect. 

The antients are said to have been ignorant of the 
secret of painting in oil, which is only the grinding th 


usual colours in several kinds of oil, as poppy-oil, nut- 
oil, and linseed-oil. This method was likewise un- 
known to the first masters of the modern Italian 
schools, and is generally thought to have been disco- 
vered in the 14th century. It was first used on board 
or pannel, afterwards on plates of copper, and on 
linen cloth. Whichever of these materials is used for 
the purpose of painting on, it is requisite that a ground 
of colour is previously laid, which is called the prim- 
ing ; or else that they are covered with a layer of size, 
or other glutinous substance, to prevent the oil from 
penetrating, and being wholly absorbed during the 
painting of the picture. These preparations are fami- 
liarly known to all colourmen. 

In some of the pictures of Titian and Paolo Vero- 
nese, there is reason to believe that they laid their 
ground with water-colours, and painted over it with 
oil, which contributed much to the vivacity and fresh- 
ness of their works, by the ground gradually imbibing 
so much of the oil as may be requisite to preserve the 
brightness of the natural colours. 

As the superior beauty of oil-painting depends on the 
vividness and delicacy of durable tints, we shall pre- 
! sent the student with the best rules drawn from a care- 
ful study of the works of Vandyck and Rembrandt, 
two of the most remarkable colourist in different styles. 
These rules are arranged in so easy a method, that 
the student may be led, step by step, through all the 
difficulties of this nice and pleasing progress. 

We shall first treat of the painting of flesh, next of 
draperies, then of the back-ground, and lastly of land- 



Principal colours from which all the tints of the flesh arc 
made, and their qualities in painting. 

K Flake-white is the best white known to us. This 
colour should be ground with the finest poppy-oil, that 
can be procured. It is often found to turn yellow, on 
account of the oil, generally sold by that name, not 
being really drawn from poppies. 

White comes forward to the eye with yellows and 
reds, but retires with blues and greens. It is the nature 
of all whites to sink into whatever ground they are 
laid on, therefore they should belaid on white grounds. 
Ivory-black is the best black ; it is a colour which 
mixes kindly with all the others. It is the true shade 
for blue ; and when mixed with a little Indian red, it 
is the best general shadow-colour that can be used. 
It is generally ground with linseed-oil, and used with 

Black is a cold, retiring colour. 
Ultramarine is the finest blue in the world : it is a 
tender retiring colour, and never glares, and is a beau- 
tiful glazing colour. It is used with poppy-oil. 

Prussian-blue is a very fine blue, and a kind work- 
ing colour : it is ground with linseed-oil, though nut- 
oil is more proper. It should never be used in the 
flesh, but in green tints and the eyes. 

Light-ochre is a good mixing colour, and of great 
use in the flesh: it is usually ground with linseed-oil, 


but nut-oil is better. All yellows are strengthened 
with red, and weakened with blues and greens. 
,, Light- red is nothing but fine light ochre burnt. This 
and white, in mixing, produce a most perfect flesh 
colour. It is a beautiful, clean colour; but too strong 
for the white, and therefore will grow darker. It 
should be ground and used with nut-oil. 

No vermilion but what is made of the true native 
cinnabar should be used. It will not glaze; but is a 
fine colour when it is glazed. It is ground with lin- 
seed-oil, and should be used with drying oil. 

Carmine is the most beautiful crimson ; it is a mid- 
dle colour, between lake and vermilion : it is a fine 
working colour, and glazes well. It should be ground 
with nut-oil, and used with drying oil. 

Lake is a tender deep red, but of no strong body : 
therefore it should be strengthened with Indian red. 
It is the best glazing colour that can be used. It is 
ground with linseed-oil, and used with drying oil. 

Indian red is a strong pleasant' working colour, but 
will not glaze well : and when mixed with white, falls 
a little into lead : it is ground and used as the lake. 

Brown pink is a fine glazing colour, but of no strong 
body. In the flesh it should never join or mix with the 
lights, because this colour and white antipathize, and 
mix of a warm dirty hue : for which reason their join- 
ings should be blended with a cold middle tint. In 
glazing of shadows it should be laid before the other 
colours that are to enrich it : it is one of the finishing 
colours and therefore should never be used in the first 
painting. It is strengthened with burnt umber, and 


weakened with terraverte ; ground with linseed-oil, 
and used with drying oil. 

Burnt umber is a fine warm brown, and a good work- 
ing strong colour : it is of great use in the hair, and 
mixes finely with the warm shade. 

Principal tints, composed from the foregoing principal 
colours, and necessary for painting jlesh. 

Light red tint is made of light red and white : it is 
the best conditioned of all colours, for the general 
ground of the flesh. With this colour and the shade 
tint, you should make out all the flesh, like claro-ob. 
scuro, or mezzitinto. Remember, that this colour 
will grow darker, because it is in its nature too strong 
for the white ; therefore you should improve it, by 
mixing vermilion and white with it, in proportion to 
the fairness of the complexion. 

Vermilion tint is only vermilion and white mixed to 
a middle tint: it is the most brilliant light red that can 
be. It agrees best with the white, light red, and 
yellow tints. 

Carmine tint is carmine and white only, mixed to a 
middle tint, it is of all colours the most beautiful red 
for the cheeks and lips ; it is one of the finishing co- 
lours, and should never be used in the first painting, 
but laid upon the finishing colours without mixing. 

Rose tint is made of the red shade and white, mixed 
to a middle degree, or lighter : It is one of the cleanest 
and most delicate tints that can be used in the flesh, 
for clearing up the heavy dirty colours, and in chang- 
ing will sympathize and mix kindly. 


Yellow tint is often made of Naples yellow and 
white ; but it is as well to use light ochre and white, 
which is a good working colour. The ochre is too 
strong for the white ; therefore you should make a 
little allowance in using it. It follows, the light red 
tints and yellows should always be laid before the blues. 
If you lay too much of it, you may cover the ground 
it was laid on with light red tints. 

Blue tint is made of ultramarine and white, mixed 
to a lightish azure : it is a pleasant working colour ; 
with it you should blend the gradations. It follows 
the yellows, and with them it makes the greens ; and 
with the reds it produces the purples. No colour is 
so proper for blending down or softening the lights 
into keeping. 

Lead tint is made of ivory black and fine white, mixed 
to a middle degree : it is a retiring colour, and there- 
fore is of great use, in the gradations and in the eyes. 
Green tint is made of Prussian blue, light ochre, and 
white. This colour will dirty the lights, and should 
be laid sparingly in the middle tints. It is of most 
use in the red shadows, where they are too strong. 

Shade tint is made of lake, Indian red, black, and 
white, mixed to a beautiful murrey colour, of a middle 
tint. This is the best mixture for the general ground of 
shadows. It mixes well with the lights and produces 
a pleasant clean colour, a little inclined to the reddish 
pearl. As all the four colours of its composition are 
of a friendly sympathizing nature, so consequently this 
will be the same, and therefore may be easily changed 
by the addition of any other colours. 


Red shade is nothing but lake and a very little Indian 
red. It is an excellent working colour, and a good 
glazer : It strengthens the shadows on the shade tint 
and receives, when it is wet, the green and blue tints 
agreeably. It is a good ground for all dark shadows. 
Warm shade is made of lake and brown pink, mixed 
to a middle degree. It is a fine colour for strength- 
ening the shadows on the shade tint, when they are 
wet or dry. Take care that it does not touch the 
lights, because they mix of a dirty colour, and there- 
fore should be softened off with a tender cold tint. 

Dark shade is made of ivory-black and a little Indian 
red only. This colour mixes very kindly with the red 
shade, and blends agreeably with the middle tints in 
the dead colouring. It is excellent for glazing the 
eye-brows and the darkest shadows. 

Process. The process of oil-painting, particularly 
in the colouring of flesh and in landscape, is to be di- 
vided into three stages or paintings. 

The colours and tints necessary for the first and se- 
cond stages of painting flesh, are ; 1 . flake, or fine 
white ; 2. light ochre and its tints: 3. light red and 
its two tints ; 4. vermilion and its tint ; 5. a tint com- 
posed of lake, vermilion, and white; 6. rose tint; 7. 
blue tint; 8. lead tint; 9. green tint; 10. half-shade 
tint, made of Indian red and white ; 11. shade tint ; 
12. red shades; 13. warm shade. 

The finishing pallet for a complexion requires five 
more, viz. 1. carmine and its tint ; 2. lake ; 3. brown 
pink; 4. ivory-black; 5. Prussian blue. 


First stage, or dead-colouring of Flesh. 

The first lay of colours consists of two parts ; the 
one is the work of the shadows only, and the other 
that of the lights. 

The work of the shadows is, to make out all the 
drawing very correctly, with the shade tint, in the 
same manner as if it was to be done with this colour 
only ; and remember to drive or lay the colour spa- 
ringly. The lights should be all laid in with the light 
red tint, in different degrees, as we see them in nature. 
These two colours united, produce a clean, tender, 
middle tint. In uniting the lights and shades, you 
should use a long softener, about the size of a large 
swan-quill, which will help to bring the work into cha- 
racter, and leave the colouring more delicate; then go 
over the darkest shadows with the red or warm 
shade which will finish the first lay. 

The warm shade being laid on the shade tint, im- 
proves it to a warmer hue ; but if laid instead of the 
shade tints, it will dirty and spoil the colours it mixes 
with ; and if the red shade is laid first, instead of the 
shade tint, the shadows would then appear too red ; 
therefore, notwithstanding these two colours are the 
best that can be for the shadows, yet they are too 
strong to be laid alone, which is a proof of the great 
use and merit of the shade tint. Here we may observe 
that the shade and light red tints are so friendly in their 
nature, that even in continually altering and changing, 
they always produce a clean colour of a pearly hue. 

Next. In order to finish the first painting, improve 
the reds and yellows to the complexion, and after them 


the blues observing, that the blues on the reds make 
the purple, and on the yellows produce the green. The 
same method is to be understood of the shadows ; but 
be sure and leave them clean and not too dark ; there- 
fore allowance should be made in the grounds with the 
lightred, because glazing them will make them darker. 
When the cloth is of a dark, or bad colour, there must 
be a strong body of colour laid all over the shadows, 
such as will not sink into the ground, but appear 
warm, and a little lighter than the life, so that it may 
be of the same forwardness to finish as if it had been a 
light ground; therefore the business of dead-colouring 
is, that you leave it always in the same order for finish- 
ing, though the colour of the cloth is quite the reverse. 
The grounds of shadows, in what we call the dead- 
colouring, should be such as will support the character 
of the finishing colours ; which ground must be clean, 
and a little lighter than the finishing colours, because 
the finishing of the shadows is glazing ; and no other 
method than glazing can leave such brilliancy and 
beauty as they ought to have. If you begin the first 
painting with glazing, it will stare and be of no use ; 
and the solid colours which are laid on it, will look 
heavy and dull ; therefore, all shadows and colours 
that are to be glazed, should be done with colours of a 
clean solid body, because the glazing is more lasting, 
and has the best effect on such colours. Remember 
to leave no roughness, that is, none such as will appear 
rough, and interrupt or hurt the character of the finish- 
ing colours ; which, by examining the work, whilst it 
is wet, with a soft tool, or when it is dry with a knife, 



may be avoided, as it will easily take off the knots and 
roughest parts. 

The light red and white improved is superior to all 
other colours for the first lay or ground ; which should 
be always done with a full pencil of a stiff colour, made 
brighter than the light, because it will sink a little in 
drying. The greater the body and quantity of colour 
and the stiffer it is laid, the less it will sink. Every co- 
lour in drying will sink, and partake, in proportion to 
its body, of the colour it is laid on; therefore, all the 
lights of the flesh, if not laid on a light ground, must 
consequently change a little from the life, if there is 
not allowance made. The shade tint for the shadows 
should fall into the rose tint, as the complexion grows 
delicate; all which should be lightly united: with 
a soft long pointed hog-tool, to the lights, making out 
the whole, like mezzotinto. The great masters very 
seldom softened or sweetened the colours ; but in uni- 
ting the first lay, they were very careful in preserving 
the brightness of their colours, and therefore did not 
work them below the complexion ; for to force or keep 
up a brilliancy in the grounds, can only be done with 
the whites, reds, and yellows, which method will make 
up for the deficiency of the white grounds ; therefore) 
the first painting should be left bright and bold, and 
the less the colours are broken the better. You should 
forbear using any colours that would produce them, 
and be contented to add what is wanting in the next 
painting ; where, if you fail, a clean rag will restore 
the first ground. 


Second painting, or second stage. 

The second painting begins with laying on the least 
quantity, that can be, of poppy oil ; then wipe it almost 
all off, with a dry piece of a silk handkerchief. 

The second painting is also divided into two parts ; 
one, the first lay of the second painting ; which is 
scumbling the lights, and glazing the shadows ; the 
other, finishing the complexion with the virgin tints, 
and, improving as far as you can, without daubing. 

First. Scumbling is going over the lights, where 
they are to be changed, with the light red tints, or 
some other of their own colours, such as will always 
clear and improve the complexion, with short stiff 
pencils ; but such parts only as require it, otherwise 
the beauty of the first painting will be spoiled. 

The light red tint improved is the best colour for 
scumbling, and improving the complexion in general. 
Where the shadows and drawing are to be corrected, 
you should do it with the shade tint, by driving the 
colour very stiff and bare, that you may the easier re- 
touch and change it with the finishing tints. Some 
parts of the shadows should be glazed with some of the 
transparent shadow-colours, such as will improve and 
come very near to the life ; but be sure not to lay on 
too much of it, for fear of losing the hue of the first 
painting, the ground of which should always appear 
through the glazing. Be very careful in uniting the 
lights and shades, that they do not mix dead and 
mealy; for the more the lights mix with the shades, 
the more mealy those shades will appear. Thus far 



the complexion is prepared and improved, in order to 
receive the virgin tints. 

Second. Go over the complexion with the virgin 
tints. These are the colours which improve the co- 
louring to the greatest perfection, both in the lights 
and shadows. 

This should be done in the same manner as you laid 
them in the second part of the first painting ; that is, 
with the reds, yellows, and blues, blending them with 
delicate light touches of the tender middle tints, with- 
out softening. Leave the tints and their grounds 
clean and distinct, and be content to leave off whilst 
the work is safe and unsullied, leaving what is farther 
required for the next sitting ; for in attempting the 
finishing touches before the other is dry, you will lose 
the spirit and drawing, and your colours will become 
of a dirty hue. 

Third painting, or finishing. 

It is to be supposed, the complexion now wants very 
little more than a few light touches ; therefore there 
will be no occasion for oiling. 

Begin with correcting all the glazing; first, where 
the glazing serves as a ground or under part ; then de- 
termine what should be done next, before you do it, so 
that you may be able to make the alteration on the part 
with one stroke of the pencil. By this method you 
preserve both the glazing and the tints ; but if it hap- 
pens that you cannot lay such a variety of tints and 
finishing colours as you intended, it is much better to 
leave off while the work is safe and in good order; 
because those few touches, which would endanger the 


beauty of the colouring, may easily be done, if you 
have patience to stay till the colours are dry; and 
then, without oiling, add those finishings with free 
light strokes of the pencil. 

- Rembrandt touched up his best pictures a great 
many times, letting them dry between. It was this 
method which gave them their surprising force and 
spirit. It is much easier to soften the over-strong tints 
when they are dry, than when they are wet ; because 
you may add the very colours that are wanting, with- 
out endangering the dry work. If any of the colours 
of the pallet want to be a little changed to the life, 
when you are painting, it is much better to do it with 
the knife on the pallet than with the pencil, because 
the knife will mix and leave it in good order for the 

Of painting draperies. 

In order to shew the nature and different degrees of 
colours of tints used in painting draperies, we must 
first determine how many divisions are absolutely ne- 
cessary to make the first lay of colours, and after that 
the reflections and finishing tints. 

The right method of painting draperies in general, 
is to make out the whole, or first lay, with three 
colours only, viz. the lights, middle-tint, and shade 

Observe that the lights should rather incline to a 
warmish hue ; and the middle tint should be made of 
friendly-working colours, such as will always mix of 
a clean, tender, coldish hue. The shade tint should 
be made of the same colours as the middle tint, only 
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with less light ; therefore this tint will also mix of a 
tender clean colour. The beauty and character of the 
folds, the shape, attitude, and principal lights and 
shades, are all to be considered, and made with these 
three colours only ; which should be done to your sa- 
tisfaction, before you add any of the reflects, or 
finishing tints. 

The reflections of draperies and satins are generally 
productions of their own, and are always lighter than 
the shadows on which they are found ; and being pro- 
duced by light, will consequently have a light warm 
colour, mixed with the local colour that receives them. 
Here it will be necessary to notice the general method 
of managing the colours of the first lay, and those of 
the reflections and finishing tints. 

In the first lay, the lights should be laid with plenty 
of stiff colours, and then shaped and softened into 
character with the middle tint very correctly. Where 
the gradation of the lights are slow, as in the large 
parts, it will be proper to lay the middle tint first at 
their extremities, with a tool that will drive the colour, 
and leave it sparingly ; because the lights will mix 
and lie the better upon it. Next make out all the parts 
of the shadows with the tint driven bare. After this 
comes the middle tint, for the several lights and gra- 
dations ; which should be very nicely wrought up to 
character without touching any of the high lights 
which finish the first lay. 

The reflects and finishing tints are in general the 
antipathies of the first lays : they will, without great 
care, dirty the colours on which they are laid ; and 
therefore should be laid with a delicate light touch 


without softening. If it is overdone, endeavour to 
recover it with the colour of the part on which it was 
laid : this may be done directly, or when it is dry. 
Whether the reflects proceed from the same colour or 
any other, the method of using them is the same. 

Before we proceed to the particular colours, it will 
be proper to make some observations on their grounds. 
It often happens, that the colour of the cloth is very 
improper for the ground of the drapery ; and when it 
is so, you should change it with those colours which 
are most proper to improve and support the finishing 
colours. This method of dead-colouring must conse- 
quently preserve them in the greatest lustre. In 
dead-colouring, you should lay the lights and shades 
in a manner so as only to show a faint idea of them, 
with regard to the shape and roundings of the figure. 
If you have a design to work from, then it will be pro- 
per to make all the large and principal parts in their 
places : which should always be done with a colour 
that is clean, and lighter than the intended drapery, 
though in general of the same hue ; and let the sha- 
dows be no darker than a middle tint. These should 
be mixed and broke in a tender manner, and then 
softened with a large tool, so that nothing rough and 
uneven is left tojnterrupt or hurt the character of the 
finishing colours. 

White satin. All whites should be painted on white 

grounds, laid with a good body of colour, because 

this colour sinks more into the ground than any other. 

There are four degrees of colours in the first lay 

to white satin. The first is the fine white for the 

lights ; the second is the first tint, which is made of 

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fine white and a little ivory-black, mixed to an exact 
middle degree between the white and the middle tint. 
This colour follows the white ; and it is with this you 
should shape the lights into character before you lay 
on any other ; and take care that this first tint appears 
distinctly between the white and the middle tint, 
otherwise the beauty and the character of the satin 
will be spoiled. 

The middle tint should be made of white, black, and 
a little Indian red. These three colours are very 
friendly, and mix to a beautiful clear colour of a 
pearly hue, which has the true brightness and warmth 
of the general hue of the satin. Remember to allow 
for the red hue changing a little to the lead. If there 
is occasion to make any part in the middle tint lighter, 
do it with the first tint only. This colour should also- 
be laid sparingly before the white, in all the little 
lights that happen in the middle tints and shadows ; 
on which you should lay the white with one light 
touch, and be sure not to cover all the parts that were 
made with the first tint ; if you do, it will spoil the 
character, and look like a spot, for want of the soft- 
ening edge or border, which must be between the 
white and the middle tint. The shade tint should be 
made of the same colour as the middle tint, but with 
less white, so that it is dark enough for the shadows 
in general ; with which make out all the parts of the 
shadows nicely to character, which is the work of the 
first lay. 

Next follow the reflects and finishing tints. 

Brown ochre, mixed with the colour of the light, is 
the most useful colour in general for all reflects in dra- 


peries that are produced from their own colours. All 
accidental reflexes are made with the colour of the 
parts from which they are produced, and the local co- 
lours that receive them. There are but two reflecting 
tints wanted for draperies in general : one should be 
lighter than the middle tint, the other darker. These 
colours may be a little changed on the pallet with the 
first and middle tints, as occasion requires, or lightly 
broken on the part that receives them ; but this last 
method is not so safe as the other. The tint sufficient 
for blending the dark shadows to the mellow tender 
hue, is made with the shade lint and a little brown 
ochre, which should be laid on very sparingly, with 
soft light touches, for fear of making them dull and 
heavy ; if it is overdone, recover it with the colour it 
was laid upon. 

We often see a little blue used in the first tint of 
white satin. Van Haecken, who was the best drapery- 
painter in England, did so; and sometimes, instead 
of the blue, he used blue-black, till he found it to be a 
pernicious colour, and was therefore obliged to use 
blue ; because his middle tint, which was only of black 
and white, was so very cold, that no other colour but 
blue would make a colder tint; yet he managed these 
cold colours, in all the lights and middle tints, so 
agreeably, and so light and easy was his touch, that 
we may learn something from him. 

lHue Satins. Blue satin is made of Prussian blue 
and fine while. 

The best ground for blue is, white for the lights 
and black and white for the shadows. 

The first lay of colours for blue is divided into three 
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degrees or tints. First make the middle tint of a 
beautiful azure ; then mix the colour for the light 
about a middle degree, between that and white. Make 
the shade tint dark enough for the shadows in 
general. All the broad lights should be laid with 
plenty of colour, and shaped to character with the 
middle tint, before you lay on other colours. Remem- 
ber, the less colours are mixed, the better they will 
.appear and stand; for the lights of blue should be 
managed with as much care as those of white satin-. 
Next follow with the rest of the middle tint, and then 
make out all the shadows. The more you drive the 
shade tint, the better it will receive the reflects and 
finishing tints. The shadows should be strengthened 
and blended with ivory black, and some of their own 
colour, which will mix with them into a tender mel- 
low hue. 

The reflects are made as those of white satin, that 
is, with ochre, and some of the lights ; which should 
be perfectly done, as you intend them, at once paint- 
ing. The shadows, when dry, may be a little im- 
proved, if there is occasion to alter them, with the 
colours they are made with. The Prussian proper to 
be used, is that which looks of the most beautiful 
azure before it is ground ; and the sooner it is used 
after it is ground, the better it will work and ap- 

Velvet may be painted at once. The method is, 
to make out the first lay with the middle tint and 
shade tint ; on which lay the high lights, with light 
touches, and finish the shadows in the same manner 
as those of satin : but the nearest imitation of velvet 


is done by glazing ; the method of which is, to prepare 
a ground, or dead-colouring, with such colours as will, 
when dry, bear out and support the glazing colour in 
its highest perfection. The nature of the glazing co- 
lour is to be of a fine transparent quality, and used sim- 
ply with oil only, so that whatever ground it is laid on, 
the whole may appear distinctly through it. The best 
ground for blue is made with white and ivory-black : 
the white is for the high lights, which, with the middle 
tint and shade tint, makes out the first lay like mezzo- 
tinto. Remember to make the middle tint lighter in 
proportion to the glazing, because that will make if 
darker. It is often necessary to cover all but the high 
fights, with a thin glazing, laid in less quantity than if 
it was to be /lone once only. If any of it touches the 
!ig-hts, wipeitoffwithacleanrag. The very high lights 
should be improved, and made of a fine white, and left 
to dry. The glazing colour is Prussian, ground very 
fine with nut oil, and should be laid with a large stif- 
fish tool. It is on the last glazing we should strength" 
en and finish the shadows. 

The greatest fault in the colouring of draperies is the 
painting the shadows with strong glaring colours, 
which destroy the beauty of the lights. This is not 
only the reverse of art, but of nature, whose beauty al- 
ways diminishes in proportion with the lights. For 
this reason, take care to blend and soften the shadows 
with such friendly colours as will agree with their local 
character and obscurity. Here observe, that glazing 
the middle tint, which is made of black and white, will 
not produce a colour so blue as if it had been prepared 
with Prussian and white ; yet this colour will preserve 



the beauty of the lights in the highest perfection, by 
reason of its tender obscure hue, when the blueness of 
the other would only diminish them. This method of 
glazing the blue is the general rule for all glazing. 

When glazing blue, the lights may be glazed with 
ultramarine, though all the other parts are done with 
Prussian. This method saves a great quantity of that 
valuable colour, and answers the purpose as well as if 
it had been done with ultramarine. 

Though the "'general method of painting satins is to 
make the first lay of colours with three degrees, or tints, 
yet you should understand, in using them, that they 
produce two more : for the mixing of two different co- 
lours together on the cloth will make another of a mid- 
dle tint between them ; so it is with the lights and mid- 
dle tints, and with the middle tint and shade tint: the 
first answers to the first tint in white satin, and the 
last will consequently be a sort of gradating, or half 

If the lights and middle tint mix to a beautiful clean 
colour, of a middle hue between both, there will be no 
occasion for a colour to go between them, as in blue 
satin; but if in mixing they produce a tint inclined to 
a dirty warm hue, then another of a sympathizing na- 
ture should be laid between them, in order to preserve 
the beauty of the lights, as the first tint in the white 
satin; for if it was not so, the red in the middle tint 
would certainly dirty and spoil the white. 

It is highly necessary to understand these principles 
of the first lay of colours, in order to have a perfect 
knowledge of the general rule cf colouring. 


Scarlet and Crimson. A light yellow red, made of 
light ochre, light red, and white, is the proper ground 
for scarlet; the shadows are Indian red, and in the 
darkest parts mixed with a very light black. 

The second painting should be a little lighter than 
you intend the finishing colour, that is, in proportion 
to the glazing, which will make it darker. 

The high lights are vermilion and white for satin 
and velvet, and vermilion for cloth. < The middle tint 
is vermilion, with a very little lake or Indian red; the 
shade tint is made with Indian red and lake, with the 
addition of a little black in the darkest shadows. The 
difference between scarlet and crimson is, that the high 
lights of crimson are whiter, and the middle tintis made 
darker. Their reflects are made with light red and ver- 
milion. The high light should be laid and managed 
in the same manner as those of the blue, for fear of 
dirtingthem; and sometimes they require to be touched 
over the second time before we glaze them. The more 
the colours of the second painting are drove, the easier 
and better they may be managed to character; but the 
high lights should have a good body of colour, and be 
left with a delicate light touch. After it is well dry, 
finish with glazing the whole with fine lake, and im- 
prove the reflects and shadows. Remember that the 
scarlet requires but a very thin glazing; and it is bet- 
ter to glaze the crimson twice over, than lay too much 
at once painting. 

Pink colour. There are two different methods of 
-painting a pink colour; one is by glazing, the other 
is done with a body of colours at one painting. The 
same grounds do for both ; which should be a whitish 


colour, inclining to a yellow, for the lights ; and Indian 

red, lake, and white, for the shadows. 

The second painting, for the glazing method, is done 
with the same colours, and a little vermilion and white 
for the high lights. When it is dry, glaze it with fine 
lake, and then break and soften the colours into har- 
mony directly. 

The other method is to make the high lights with 
carmine and white; the middle tint with lake, white, 
and a little carmine ; and the shadows with lake and 
Indian red, with a little vermilion for the reflections. 
But remember, the shadows will require to be broken 
with some tender obscure tint. 

Yellow. The ground for yellow should be a yellowish 
white for the lights, and a mixture of the ochres for 
the shadows. 

There are the same number of tints in the yellow, as 
there are in the white satin, and the method of using 
them is the very same. The lights are made with 
king's yellow, ground with clean good drying oil. The 
first tint is light ochre, changed with a little of the pearl 
tint, made with the dark shade and white, which 
should be laid and managed as the first tink in white 
satin, the middle tint is a mixture of the light and 
brown ochre, softened with the pearl tint. The shade 
tint is made with brown pink and brown ochre : these 
belong to the first lay. 

The reflects are light ochre, and sometimes in the 
warmest parts mixed with a little light red. The 
shadows are strengthened with brown pink and burnt 

Green. The proper ground for green is a light yel- 


low green, which is made of light ochre, a -little white, 
and Prussian blue, for the lights, and the ochre, brown 
pink, and Prussian, for the shadows. 

The finest green for draperies is made of king's yeb- 
low, Prussian blue, and brown pink. The high lights 
are king's yellow, and a very little Prussian; the 
middle tint should have more Prussian; and the 
shadow tint is made with some of the middle tint, 
brown pink, and more Prussian; but the darkest 
shadows are brown pink and a little Prussian. The 
lights and middle tint should be managed in the same 
manner as those of the blues. The shadow tint should 
be kept entirely from the lights, because the brown 
pink that is in it will, in mixing, dirty them, as the 
black does those of the blues. Remember to allow for 
their drying a little darker; and that the king's yellow 
must be ground with good drying oil ; for the longer it 
is drying, the more it will change and grow darker ; 
and the sooner it is used, the better it will stand. It is 
proper to have two sorts of king's yellow, one to be 
very light, for the high lights of velvet. 

Changeable colours. Changeable colours are made 
with four principal tints, viz. the high lights, middle 
tint, shade tint, and reflecting tint. 

The greatest art lies in finding the exact colour of the 
middle tint, because it has more of the general hue of 
the silk than any of the others. The shade tint is of 
the same hue with the middle tint, though it is dark 
enough for the shadows. The high lights, though 
often very different from the middle tint, should be of 
friendly-working colour, that will, in mixing with it, 
produce a tint of a clean hue. 


The method of painting silks is to make out the folds 
with the shade tint, and then fill them up in the 
lights with the middle tint. This first lay should be 
done to your satisfaction before you add any other 
colours ; and the stiffer the middle tint is used, the 
better the high lights may be laid upon it. The re- 
flecting tint falls generally upon the gradating half- 
shades, and should be laid with tender touches spar- 
ingly, for fear of spoiling the first lay. 

This method of painting answers for all coloured 
silks, as well as changeable, with this difference only; 
.that the plain colours require not so much art in 
matching the tints, as the changeable do. The last 
part of the work is the finishing and strengthening the 
shadows with an obscure tint, a little inclining to a 
mellowish hue ; such as will not catch the eye, and 
interrupt the beauty of the lights. 

Black. The best ground for black is light red for 
the lights, and Indian red and a little black for the 

The finishing colours are, for the lights, black, white, 
and a little lake. The middle tint has less white, and 
more lake and black ; the shade tint is made of an 
equal quantity of lake and brown pink, with a very 
little black. 

The method of painting black is very different from 
that of other colours , for as in these the principal thing 
is to leave their lights clear and brilliant ; so in black, 
it is to keep the shadows clear and transparent. There- 
fore begin with the shade tint, and glaze over all the 
shadows with it. Next lay in the darkest shadows 
with black, and a little of the shade tint, very correctly. 


After that, fill up the whole breadth of lights with the 
middle tint only. All which should be done exactly to 
the character of the satin, velvet, cloth, &c. &c. and 
then finish with the high lights. 

Here observe, the ground, being red, will bear out 
and support the reds, which are used in the finishing 
colours. The lake in the lights takes off the cold hue, 
and gives it a more beautiful colour. If the shade tint 
was of any other colour than a transparent warm hue 
the shadows would consequently be black and heavy, 
because no other colours can preserve the warm bril- 
liancy which is wanting in the shadows of the black, 
like lake and brown pink. Black is of a cold heavy 
nature, and always too strong for any other colour; 
therefore you should make an allowance in using it. 
There will be a few reflects in satin, which should be 
added as those of other colours ; but they should be 
made of strong colours, such as burnt umber, or brown 
ochre, mixed with a little shade tint. 

Though the grounds mentioned for the draperies are 
absolutely necessary for the principal and nearest 
figures in a picture, such as a single portrait, or the 
like; yet for figures which are placed behind the 
principal or front figures, their grounds should be 
fainter in proportion to their local finishing colours. 

Linen. The colours used in linen are the same as 
those in white satin, except the first tint, which is made 
of white and ultramarine ashes, instead of the black, 
and mixed to a very light bluish tint. 

In the dead colouring, take particular care that the 
grounds are laid very white and broad in the lights. 
The shadows are made with black, white and a little 


Indian red, like the middle tint of white satin. These 
should be left very light and clean, in order to support 
the finishing colours. 

The second painting begins with glazing all the 
lights, with a stiff pencil and fine white only, driven 
bare, without using any oil. The shadows may be 
scumbled with poppy oil, and some of the colour they 
were made of. This is the first lay, on which you are 
to follow with the finishing colours directly. The 
middle tint of white satin is the best colour for the 
general hue of the shadows. With this and white, in 
different degrees, make out all the parts to character, 
with free light touches, without softening ; then, with 
a large long pointed pencil and fine white, lay the high 
lights very nicely with one stroke. After this comes 
the fine light bluish tint, which should be mixed light, 
and laid in the tender gradations, very sparingly and 
lightly, without filling them up. 

Remember, the first lay should be left clear and 
distinct; the more it appears, the better. It is the 
overmixing and joining all the colours together, which 
spoils the beauty of the character ; therefore it is 
better to let it dry before we add the reflects and 
finishing tints. 

The method of letting the beautiful clear colour dry, 
before you add the warm reflects, and harmonizing tints, 
prevents them from mixing and dirting each other. 

The principal blending colours used in the reflects 
are the yellow tint, green tint, and rose tint ; which 
last is made of lake, Indian red, and white. Glazing 
the pearl and lead-colour with white,though it seems 
to answer our purpose at the time when it is done, will 


certainly sink and be lost in the grounds on which it is 
laid ; therefore you should make the dead-colouring as 
white as you intend the finishing colours, by reason 
they will sink a little in proportion to the colour of 
the cloth, which the glazing with pure white only will 

Of painting back grounds. 

The principal colours that are necessary for painting 
of back-grounds, as walls, buildings, or the like, are 
white, black, Indian red, light and brown ochre, Prus- 
sian, and burnt umber ; from which the eight principal 
tints are made, as follows : 

1. Pearl is made of black, white, and a little Indian 

2. Lead, of black and white, mixed to a dead lead 

3. Yellow, of a brown ochre and white. 

4. Olive, of light ochre, Prussian, and white. 

5. Flesh, of Indian red and white, mixed to a middle 

6. Murrey, of Indian red, white and a little black 
mixed to a kind of purple, of a middle tint. 

7. Stone, of white, umber, black, and Indian red. 

8. Dark shade, of black and indian red ouly. 
Here the lead tint serves for the blues, the flesh tint 

mixes agreeably with the lead, and the murrey is a very 
good blending colour, and of great use where the olive 
is too strong ; the umber, white, and dark shade, will 
produce a fine variety of stone colours ; the dark shade 
and umber, used plentiful with drying oil, make an ex- 
cellent warm shadow-colour. All the colours should 


be laid with drying oil only, because they mix and set 
the better with the softener. 

Where the marks of the trowel are so strong in the 
priming of the cloth, that one body of colours will not 
be sufficient to conceal it, lay a colour to prevent it, 
which should be dry before you begin, with those parts 
you expect to finish at once painting. 

Process. The process of painting back-ground is di- 
vided into two parts in stages : the first is the work of 
the first lay, the second that of the finishing tints. 

Begin the first lay from the shadowed side of the 
head, and paint the lights first; from them go into the 
gradations and shadows, which should be done with a 
stiffish tool, very sparingly, with the^dark shade and 
white, a little changed with the colours that will give 
it more of the required hue, but very near in regard to 
tone and strength, leaving them like mezzotinto. 

The dark and warm shadows should be laid before 
the colours that join them. This do with the dark 
shade and umber, driven with drying oil. If those co- 
lours were laid on first, they would spoil the transpa- 
rency, which is their greatest beauty. The more the 
firstlay is driven, the easier and better you may change 
it with the finishing tints, therefore you may lay them 
with the greater body. 

The second part is to follow directly, whilst the first 
lay is wet, with those tints that are most proper to har- 
monize and finish with. 

Begin with the lights first, and remember, as you 
heighten and finish them, to do it with warmer colours ; 
and let those be accompanied with fine tender cold tints. 
The lightest parts of the ground should be painted with 


a variety of light warm clear colours, which vanish and 
lose their strength imperceptibly in their gradations. 
Take care that you do not cover too much of the first 
lay, but consider it as the principal colour. 

From the lights, go to the gradations and shadows, 
for when the lights are well adapted to produce and 
support the figure, it is easy to fall from them into 
whatever kind of shadows you find most proper; then 
soften and blend the whole with a long large hog-tool 
which, with the strength and body of the drying oil, 
will melt and sweeten altogether, in such a manner, as 
will seem surprisingly finished. Remember the tints 
will sink, and lose a little of their strength and beauty 
in drying. All grounds, as walls, &c. should be finish- 
ed at once painting; but if they want to be changed, 
glaze them with a little of the dark shade and drying 
oil, driven very bare; on which, with a few light 
touches of the colour that is wanting, you may improve 
their hue. The dark shadows may also be strengthened 
and improved by glazing, which should be done after 
the figures are nearly finished, for fear of making them 
too strong. 

Rembrandt's grounds are rather brighter in the lights 
and have more variety of tints than other painters, for 
he had observed, that those tints diminish in propor- 
tion with the lights ; therefore his shadows have but 
a faint appearance of tints. He understood the grada- 
tions in perfection, by mixing and breaking the first 
lay of colours so artfully, that they deceive in regard 
to their real strength. 

Vandyck's general method, was to break the colours 


of the ground with those of the drapery. This will 

certainly produce harmony. 

Fresnoy says, let the field or ground of the picture be 
pleasant, free, transient, light and well united with 
colours which are of a friendly nature to each other ; 
arid of such a mixture as that there may be something 
in it of every colour that compose your work, as it 
were the contents of your pallet. 

Curtains should be dead-coloured when we paint the 
ground ; and should be done with clean colours, of a 
near hue to the intended curtain, such as will support 
the finishing colours; do it with a tender sort of keep- 
ing and near in regard to their tone in the lights, but 
much softer in the shadows : all which should be mix- 
ed and broken with the colours of the ground. It will 
often happen, that we cannot make the folds the first 
painting; we should then leave the masses of light and 
shadow, in regard to the keeping of the picture, broad 
and well united together, such as may seem easy to 
finish on. The colours of the landscape, in back 
rounds, should be broke and softened also with those 
of the parts which join them. This method will make 
all the parts of the ground, as it were, of one piece. 

The sky should be broke with the lead and the flesh- 
tints. The murrey tint is of great use in the grounds 
of distant objects ; and the umber and dark shades in 
the near grounds. The greens should be more beautiful 
than you intend them, because they will fade and grow 
darker. After all is painted, go over the whole very 
lightly with the softener, as you did the grQunds, 
which will make it look agreeably finished. 


Of painting Landscapes. 

The principal colours used in landscapes are: 1. flake 
white; 2. white lead, or common white ; 2. fine light 
ochre; 4. brown ochre ; 5. brown pink; 6 burnt um- 
ber ; 7. ivory black ; 8. Prussian blue ; 9. ultramarine ; 
10. terreverte; 11. lake; 12. Indian red; 13. vermi- 
lion, or native cinnaber ; 14. king's yellow. 

The principal tints are, 1. light ochre and white; 2. 
light ochre, Prussian blue, and white ; 3. light ochre 
and Prussian blue ; 4. the same darker ; 5. terreverte 
and Prussian blue ; 7. brown pink and brown ochre ; 
8. brown pink, ochre, and Prussian blue ; 9. Indian 
red and white; 10. ivory-black, Indian red, and lake. 
The colours necessary for dead-colouring, are : com- 
mon white, light ochre, brown ochre, burnt umber, In- 
dian red, ivory black, and Prussian blue. 

The principal colours and tints for painting the sky, 
are, fine white, ultramarine, Prussian blue, light ochre, 
vermilion, lake, and Indian red. 

The tints are, a fine azure, lighter azure, light ochre 
and white, vermilion and white ; and a tint made of 
white, a little vermilion, and some of the light azure, 
at your discretion. 

Process. Sketch or rub in your design faintly, with 
burnt umber used with drying oil, and a little oil of 
turpentine; leaving the colour of the cloth for the 
lights. Remember, in doing this, to leave no part of 
the shadows so dark as you intend the first lay or dead- 
colouring, which also is to be lighter than the finishing 
colours. Though the foliage of the trees is only rubbed 
in faintly, yet the trunks and bodies should be in their 


proper shapes,with their breadths of light and shadow. 
All kinds of building should be done in the same man- 
ner, leaving the colour of the cloth for their lights. 
The figures on the fore-ground may also be sketched 
in the same manner and then left to dry. 

First Painting, or dead-colouring. 

Let the first lay, or dead 'Colouring, be without any 
bright, glaring, or strong dark colours; so that the 
effect is made more to receive and preserve the finish- 
ing colours than to shew them in their first painting. 

The sky should be done first, then all the distances J 
and so work downwards to the middle group, and from 
that to the fore-ground, and nearest parts. Remember 
all the parts of each group, as trees, building, or the 
lik-e, are all painted with the group they belong to. 

The greatest secret in dead-colouring is, to find the 
two colours which serve for the ground of shadows in 
general, the sky excepted ; and the method of using 
them with the lights ; the first of which is the dark 
shade with a little lake in it ; the other colour is only 
burnt umber. These should be a little changed to the 
natural hue of the objects, and then laid on with 
drying oil, in the same manner as we shade with Indian 
ink, which is a kind of glazing, and as such they 
should be left ; otherwise they will be dark and heavy, 
and therefore would be entirely spoiled for the finishing 
glazing. Both these colours mix and sympathize 
agreeably with all the lights, but should be laid before 

The sky. The sky should be laid with a good body of 
colours, and left with a faint resemblance of the prin- 


cipal clouds more in the manner of claro obscuro than 
with finishing colours ; the whiter it is left the better 
it will bear out and support them; the distances should 
be made out faint and obscurely ,with the dark shades, 
and some of their lights in different degrees, and laid 
so as best to find and shew their principal parts. All 
the grounds of the trees should be laid or rubbed in, 
enough only to leave an idea of their shapes and 
shadows faintly. The ground of their shadows must 
be clean and lighter than their finishing colours. 

In painting the lights it is better to incline more to 
the middle tint, than to the very high lights ; and 
observe to leave them with a sufficient body of clean 
colours, which will preserve thefinishingcolours better; 
all which may be clone with a few tints. After this, 
go over the whole with a sweetener very lightly, which 
will soften and mix the colours agreeably for finishing. 

Second Painting. 

Begin with the sky, ^nd lay in all the azure, and 
colours of the horizon ; then soften them ; after that, 
lay in the general tint of the clouds, and finish on it 
with the highlights, and the other tints that are want- 
ing, with the light tender touches; then soften the whole 
with a sweetener very lightly. The finishing of the 
sky should be done all at one painting, because the 
tender character of the clouds will not do so well as 
when the whole is wet. Observe, that the stiffer the 
azure and colours of the horizon are laid, the better 
the clouds may be painted upon them. 

The greatest distances are chiefly made with the 
colour of the sky ; as they grow nearer and darker 


glaze and scumble the parts very thin, with such glaz- 
ing shadow-colours as come nearest to the general hue 
of the group the objects are in. This glazing should 
be understood of a darkish hue ; and that the first 
painting or dead-colour should be seen through it dis- 
tinctly. On this lay, or ground, add the finishing 

Now suppose this glazed ground properly adsfpted 
to the object and place, it will be easy to find the other 
colours which are wanted for the lights and finishings 
of the same ; but in laying them you must take care 
not to spoil the glazing ; therefore be very exact in 
making those colours on the pallet, and then be sure 
to lay them with light free touches. 

Before we proceed any farther it will be proper to 
say something of the most useful glazing colours. 

Lake, terreverte, Prussian blue, and brown pink, are 
the four principal. The more you manage them like 
Indian ink y aud the more distinctly you leave them, 
the better their transparent beauty will stand and ap- 
pear, provided you do it with good drying oil. After 
these four glazing colours, burnt umber is a very good 
glazing warm brown, and is of great use in the broken 
grounds and nearest parts ; but the most agreeable 
colour for the darkest shadows, is the dark shade im- 
proved with lake. It is a fine warm shade ; mixes har- 
moniously with all the lights, as well as the shadows ; 
and is excellent in the trunks and bodies of trees, and 
in all kinds of buildings. 

Make out all the ground of the objects with such 
glazing shadow-colours as seem nearest to the natural 
hue of the object in that situation ; but as the principal 


glazing colours themselves are often too strong and 
glaring, they should therefore' be a little changed, and 
softened with such colours as are of a near resemblance 
to themselves and the objects; thus, if it is in the dis- 
tances, the terrererte and the azure, which are the 
principal glazing colours, may be improved and made 
lighter with some of the sky tints ; and as the distance 
comes nearer with the purple. In the middle group, 
the terreverte and Prussian blue may be changed with 
some of the green tints ; such as are made without 
white, for white is the destruction of all glazing colours. 
As you approach the first group, there is less occasion 
for changing them ; but the foreground and its objects 
require all the strength and force of glazing, which 
the colours are capable of producing. 

After this glazing ground, follow with strengthening 
the same in the shadows, and darkest places, in such 
manner as will seem easy to finish; which is the first 
lay of the second painting. 

The colours that come next for finishing, are in the 
degree of middle tints: these should be carefully laid 
over the greatest breadth of lights, in such manner as 
not to spoil and cover too much of the glazing. Do it 
with a good body of colour, as stiff as the pencil can 
agreeably manage. Remember the colours of the mid- 
dle tint should be of a clean beautiful hue. According 
to these methods, it will be easy to finish all the sepond 
painting down from the sky, through the middle group. 
As you come to the first group, where all the objects 
should be perfectly finished, finish their under or most 
distant parts, before you paint any of the other, which 
appear nearer. Observe this method down to the last 
L 2 


and nearest objects of the picture : and where it so 
happens that painting one tree over another does not 
please, forbear the second until the first is dry. Thin 
near trees of different colours, will do better, if you let 
the underparts dry before you add the finishing colours. 

Third and last painting. 

If oiling is necessary, lay the least quantity that can 
be ; which should be done with a stump tool or pencil 
proportioned to the place that is to be oiled, so as to oil 
no more than is wanted ; then wipe the whole place 
that is oiled, with a piece of silk handkerchief. 

When going to finish any objects, remember to use 
a great variety of tints, very nearly of the same colour, 
but most of all when finishing trees. This gives a 
richness to the colouring, and produces harmony. The 
greens will fade, and grow darker; therefore it is highly 
necessary to improve and force them, by exaggerating 
the lights, and making an allowance in using them so 
much the lighter. For the same reason take great care 
not to overcharge and spoil the beauty of the glazing ; 
for if you do, it will be dull and heavy, and will con- 
sequently grow darker. 

The method of painting near trees is, to make the 
first lay very near to nature, though not quite so dark 
but more in the degree of a middle tint, and follow it 
with strengthening the shadows; then the middle tints; 
and last of all lay the high lights and finishing colours. 
All this cannot be done as it should be, at one paint- 
ing; therefore the best way is, to do no more than the 
first lay with the faint shadows, and leave it to dry. 


Then begin with improving the middle tints and 
shadows, and let them dry. 

The third and last work is, adding all the lights and 
finishing colours in the best manner you are able. This 
method of leaving the first and second parts to dry, se- 
parately, not only makes the whole much easier, and 
move agreeable, but leaves the colours in the greatest 
perfection ; because most of the work may be done 
with scumbling and glazing, and some parts without 
oiling. The lights also may be laid with a better body 
of colour, which will not be mixed and spoiled with 
the wet ground. 

The figures in the landscape are the last work of the 
picture ; those in the fore-ground Should be done first, 
and those in the distances should be done next ; for 
aftear the. figures in the first and farthest group are 
painted it wMl be much easier to find the proportions 
of those in the middle parts of the picture. And ob- 
serve, that the shadows of the figures, should be of the 
same hue or colour, with those of the group or place 
they are in. 


WHETHER the painter works with oil colours, water 
colours, or crayons, the grand object of his pursuit is 
still the same: a just imitation of nature. But each 
species has its peculiar rules and methods. Painting 
with crayons requires in many respects, a treatment 
different from painting in oil colours ; because all co- 
lours used dry are, in their nature, of a much warmer 
L 3 


complexion than when wet with oils, or any other 
binding fluid. Let this be proved by matter of fact. 
Mr. Cotes painted a portrait of Sir William Chambers, 
which is in Lord Besborough's collection. An ingeni- 
ous foreigner had discovered a method of fixing crayon 
pictures so that they would not rub or receive an injury 
if any accident happened to the glass. The Society for 
the encouragement of arts, had before offered a premium 
to any one who should discover so valuable a secret, for 
which premium he made application. Mr. Cotes be- 
ing eminent in his profession, was desired to lend a pic- 
ture for the trial, and giving his judgment, which was 
made on this portrait of Sir William Chambers. The 
crayons he indeed so perfectly fixed as to resist any rub 
or brush without the least injury, which before would 
have entirely defaced or spoiled it; but the picture, 
which before had a particularly warm, brilliant, and 
agreeable effect,in comparison became cold and purple, 
and though in one sense the attempt succeeded to the 
designed intention of fixing the colours, yet the binding 
quality of whatever fluid was made use of in the pro- 
cess, changed the complexion of the colours, rendering 
the cold tints too predominant. For this reason in or- 
der to produce arich picture, amuch greater proportion 
of what painters term cooling tints must be applied in 
crayon painting, than would be judicious to use in oils. 
Without any danger of -a mistake, it is to be supposed, 
th not being acquainted with this observation is one 
great cause why so many oil painters have no better 
success when they attempt crayon painting. On the 
contrary, crayon painters being so much used to those 
tints which are of a cold nature when used wet are apt 


to introduce them too much when they paint with oils, 
which is seldom productive of a good effect. 

Another observation I would make, which requires 
particular notice from the studentwho has been conver- 
sant with oil painting,prior to his attempts with crayons; 
oil painters begin their pictures much lighter and fainter 
than they intend to finish them, which presents the 
future colouring clear and brilliant, the light under- 
neath greatly assisting the transparent glazing and 
scumbling colours, which if they were laid over any part 
already too dark, would but increase its heavy effect. 
On the contrary, crayons being made of dry colours,are 
difficult to procure sufficiently dark, the crayon painter 
will find an absolute necessity to begin his picture as 
dark and rich as possible, except in the strongest lights; 
for if once the grey and light tints become predominant, 
it will be next to impossible for him (in the deep sha- 
dows especially) to restore depth and brilliancy, having 
no opportunity of glazing or scumbling to give the ef- 
fect, as the grey tints being mixtures with whiting un- 
derneath, will continually work up and render the 
attempt abortive. 

We shall now endeavour to give the student some di- 
rections towards the attainment of excellence in this art. 
The student must provide himself with some strong 
blue paper, the thicker the better, if the grain is not 
too coarse and knotty,though it is almost impossible to 
get any entirely free from knots. The knots should be 
levelled with a penknife or razor, otherwise they will 
prove exceedingly troublesome. After this is done,the 
paper must be pasted tery smooth on a linen cloth pre- 
viously strained on a deal frame, the size according to 
L 4 


the artist's pleasure; on this the picture is to be execut- 
ed, but it is most eligible not to paste the paper on till 
the whole subject is first dead-coloured. The method 
of doing this is very easy, by laying the paper with 
the dead colour on its face, upon a smooth board or 
table, when by means of a brush the back side of the 
paper must be covered with paste; the frame, with the 
strained cloth, must then be laid on the pasted side of 
the paper ; after which turn the painted side upper- 
most, and lay a piece of clean paper upon it, to pre- 
vent smearing ; this being done, it may be stroked 
gently over with the hand, by which means all the air 
between the cloth and the paper will be forced out. 

When the paste is perfectly dry, the student may 
proceed with the painting. The advantages arising 
from pasting the paper in the frame, according to this 
method, after the picture is begun, are very great, as 
the crayons will adhere much'better than any other 
way, which will enable the student to finish the picture 
with a firmer body of colour, and greater lustre. The 
late Mr. Cotes discovered this method by accident, and 
esteemed it a valuable acquisition ; and, I remember, 
on a particular occasion, he removed a fine crayon pic- 
ture of Rozalba's, and placed it on another strained 
cloth without the least injury, by soaking the canvass 
with a wet sponge, till the paste between the cloth and 
paper was sufficiently wet to admit of separation. 

When painters want to make a very correct copy of 
a picture they generally make use of a tiffany, or black 
gauze, strained tight on a frame, which they lay flat 
on the subject to be imitated, and with a piece of 
sketching chalk, trace all the outlines on the tiffany. 


They then lay the canvass to be painted on flat upon the 
floor, placing the tiffany with the chalked lines upon it, 
and with a handkerchief brush the whole over : this 
presents the exact outlines of the picture on the canvas. 
The crayon painter may also make use of this method 
when the subject of his imitation is in oils, but in copy- 
ing a crayon picture, he must have recourse to the fol- 
lowing method, on account of the glass: 

The picture being placed upon the esel, let the out- 
lines be drawn on the glass, with a small camel's hair 
pencil dipped in lake, ground thin with oils,which must 
be done with great exactness; after this is accomplish- 
ed, take a sheet of paper of the same size, and place it 
on the glass, stroking over all the lines with the hand, 
by which means the colours will adhere to the paper, 
which must be pierced with pin holes pretty close to 
each other. The paper intended to be used for the 
painting must be next laid upon a table and the pierced 
paper placed upon it ; then with some fine pounded 
charcoal, tied up in a piece of lawn, rub over the perforat- 
ed strokes, which will give an exact outline. Great 
care must be taken not to brush this off till the whole 
is drawn over with sketching chalk, which is a compo- 
sition made of whiting and tobacco-pipe clay, rolled 
like crayons, and pointed at each end. 

When the student paints immediately from the life, 
rt will be most prudent to make a Correct drawing of 
the outlines on another paper, the size of the picture 
he is going to paint, which he may trace by the preced- 
ing method, because erroneous strokes of the sketch ing 
chalk(whichare not to be avoided without great expert- 
ness) will 'prevent the crayons from adhereing to the 
L 5 


paper, owing to a certain greasy quality in the com- 

The student will find the sitting posture, with the 
box of crayons on his lap, the most convenient me- 
thod for him to paint. The part of the picture he is 
immediately painting should be rather below his face, 
for if it is placed too high, the arm will be fatigued. 
Let the windows of the room where he paints be 
darkened at least to the height of six feet from the 
ground, and the subject to be painted should be situ- 
ated in such a manner, that the light may fall with 
every advantage on the face ; avoiding too much sha- 
dow, which seldom has a good effect in portrait paint- 
ing, especially if the face he paints has any degree of 
delicacy. Before he begins to paint, let him be at- 
tentive to his subject, and appropriate the action or 
attitude proper to the age of the subject : if a child, 
let it be childish ; if a young lady, express more vi- 
vacity than in the majestic beauty of a middle aged 
woman, who also should not be expressed with the 
same gravity as a person far advanced in years. Let 
the embellishments of the picture, and introduction of 
birds, animals, &c. be regulated by the rules of pro- 
priety and consistency. 

The features of the face being carefully drawn with 
chalk, let the student take a crayon of pure carmine 
and carefully draw the nostril and edge of the nose, 
next the shadow ; then with the faintest carmine tint, 
lay in the strongest light upon the nose and forehead, 
which must be executed broad. He is then to pro- 
ceed gradually with the second tint, and the succeed- 
ing ones, till he arrives at the shadows, which must 


be covered brilliantly, enriched with much lake, car- 
mine a little broken with brilliant green. This me- 
thod will at first offensively strike the eye, from its 
crude appearance ; but, in finishing, it will be a good 
foundation to produce a pleasing effect, colours being 
much more easily sullied when too bright, than when 
the first colouring is dull, to raise the picture into a 
brilliant state. The several pearly tints discernable in 
fine complexions, must be imitated with blue verditer 
and white, which answer to the ultramarine tints 
used in oils. But if the parts of the face where these 
tints appear are in shadow, the crayons composed of 
black and white must be substituted in their place. 

Though all the face, when first coloured, should be 
laid in as brilliant as possible, yet each part should be 
kept in its proper tone, by which means the rotundity 
of the face will be preserved. 

Let the student be careful when he begins the eyes 
to draw them with a crayon inclined to the carmine 
tint; of whatever colour the iris are of, he must lay 
them in brilliant, and, at first, not loaded with colour, 
but executed lightly; no notice is to be taken of the 
pupil yet. The student must let the light of the eye 
incline very much to the blue cast, cautiously avoiding 
a staring, white appearance, (which when once intro- 
duced, is seldom'overcome) preserving a broad shadow 
thrown on its upper part, by the eye-lash. A black 
and heavy tint is also to be avoided in the eye-brows ; 
it is therefore best to execute them like a broad glow- 
ing shadow at first, on which, in the finishing, the 
hairs of the brow are to be painted, by which method 
L 6 


of proceeding, the former tints will shew themselves 
through, and produce the most pleasing effect. 

The student should begin the lips with pure car- 
mine and lake, and in the shadow use some carmine 
and black ; the strong vermilion tints should be laid 
on afterwards. He must beware of executing them 
with stiff, harsh lines, gently intermixing each with 
the neighbouring colours, making the shadow beneath 
broad, and enriched with brilliant crayons. He must 
form the corner of the mouth with carmine, brown 
oker, and greens, variously intermixed. If the hair is 
dark, he should preserve much of the lake and deep 
carmine tint therein ; this may be easily overpowered 
by the warmer hair tints, which, as observed in paint- 
ing tne eye-brows, will produce a richer effect when 
the picture is finished ; on the contrary, if this method 
is unknown or neglected, a poverty of colouring will 
be discernable. 

After the student has covered over, or, as artists 
term it, has dead-coloured the head, he is to sweeten 
the whole together by rubbing it over with his finger, 
beginning at the strongest light upon the forehead, 
passing his finger very lightly and uniting it with the 
next tint, which he must continue till the whole is 
sweetened together, often wiping his finger on a towel, 
to prevent the colours being sullied. He must be cau- 
tious not to smooth or sweeten his picture too often, 
because it will give rise to a thin and scanty effect, 
and have more the appearance of a drawing than a 
solid painting, as nothing but a body of rich colours 
can constitute a rich effect. To avoid this, (as the . 


student finds it necessary to sweeten with the finger) 
he must continually replenish the picture with more 

When the head is brought to some degree of for- 
wardness, let the back ground be laid in, which must 
be treated in a different manner, covering it as thin 
as possible, and rubbing it into the paper with a 
leather stump. Near the face the paper should be 
almost free from colour, for this will do great service 
to the head, and, by its thinness, give both a soft and 
solid appearance. In the back ground also, crayons 
which have whiting in their composition should be 
used, but seldom or never without caution; but chiefly 
such as are the most brilliant and the least adulterated. 
The ground being painted thin next the hair, will give 
the student an opportunity of painting the edges of 
the hair over in a light and free manner, when he 
gives the finishing touches. 

The student having proceeded thus far, the face, 
hair, and back ground being entirely covered, he must 
carefully view the whole at some distance, remarking 
in what respect it is out of keeping, that is, what parts 
are too light, and what too dark, being particularly 
attentive to the white or chalky appearances, which 
must be subdued with lake and carmine. The above 
method being properly put into execution will produce 
the appearance of a painting principalfy composed of 
three colours, viz. carmine, black and white, which is 
the best preparation a painter can make for producing 
a fine crayon picture. 

The next step is to complete the back ground and 
the hair, as the dust, in painting these, will fall on 


the face, and would much injure it, if that was 
completed first. From thence proceed to the forehead, 
finishing downward, till the whole picture is com- 

Back grounds may be of various colours ; but it 
requires great taste and judgment to suit them pro- 
perly to different complexions; in general, a strong 
coloured head should have a tender tinted ground, 
and, on the contrary, a delicate complexion should 
be opposed with strong and powerful tints ; by which 
proper contrast between the figure and the back 
ground, the picture will receive great force, and strike 
the spectator much more than it could possibly do 
was this circumstance of contrast not carefully at- 
tended to. 

Young painters often treat the back grounds of pic- 
tures as a matter of very little or no consequence, 
when it is most certain great part of the beauty and 
brilliancy of the picture, especially the face, depends 
upon the tints being well suited, the darks kept in 
their proper places, and the whole being perfectly in 
subordination to the face. Thus a simple back ground 
requires attention, but the difficulty is still greater when 
a variety of objects are introduced, such as hills, trees, 
buildings, &c. in these cases one rule must be strictly 
regarded, that each grand object be so disposed as to 
contract each other; this is not meant merely respect- 
ing their forms, but their colour, their light, shade, 
&c. For instance, we will suppose the figure receiv- 
ing the strongest light; behind the figure, and very 
near at hand, are the stems of some large trees, 
these must have shade thrown over them, either from 


a driving cloud or some other interposing circum- 
stance ; behind these stems of trees, and at a distance, 
are seen trees on a rising ground ; these should receive 
the light as a contrast to the former, &c. If an archi- 
tectural back ground be chosen, the same rule must be 
applied : suppose a building at a moderate distance is 
placed behind the figure receiving the light, a column 
or some other object in shadow should intervene, to 
preserve proper decorum in the piece, or what will 
have the same effect, a shadow must be thrown over 
the lower part of the building, which will give equal 
satisfaction or repose to the eye. It will be remem- 
bered, the light must always be placed against the 
dark, and the weak against the strong, in order to 
produce force and effect, and rice versa. 

In painting over the forehead the last time, begin 
the highest light with the most faint vermilion tint, 
in the same place where the faint carmine was first 
laid, keeping it broad in the same manner. In the 
next shade succeeding the lightest, the student must 
work in some light blue tints, composed of verditer 
and white, intermixing with them some of the deeper 
vermilion tints, sweetening them together with 
great caution, insensibly melting them into one 
another, increasing the proportion of each colour as 
his judgment shall direct. Some brilliant yellows 
may also be used, but sparingly ; and towards the 
roots of the hair, strong verditer tints, intermixed with 
greens, will be of singular service. Cooling crayons, 
composed of black and white, should succeed these, 
and melt into the hair. Beneath the eyes, the plea- 
sing pearly tints are to be preserved, composed of 


verditer and white, and under the nose, and on the 
temples, the same may be used ; beneath the lips tints 
of this kind also are proper, mixing them with the 
light greens and some vermilion. 

The introduction of greens and blues into the face 
in painting, has often given surprise to those who are 
unacquainted with the art, but there is reason suffi- 
cient for their introduction (though it may appear 
strange at first) in order to break and correct the 
other colours. 

The carmine predominating in the dead colour, is, 
as has been observed, the best preparation for the suc- 
ceeding tints ; the crudeness of this preparation must 
be corrected by variously intermixing greens, blues, 
and yellows ; which of these are to be used is to be 
determined by the degree of carmine in the dead 
colour, and the complexibn intended. The blue and 
yellow are of a nature diametrically opposite, and serve 
to correct the reds, and oppose one another ; the greens 
being compounded of both these colours, is of pecu- 
liar use in many cases where the transition is not to 
be so violent. 

' The student, attentively considering nature, will dis- 
cover a pleasing variety of colours on the surface, -and 
discernible through a clear and transparent skin ; this 
variety will be still increased by the effect of light and 
shade; he will perceive one part inclining to the ver- 
milion red, another to the carmine or lake, one to the 
blue, this to the green, and that to the yellow, &c. In 
order to produce these different effects he will apply 
those colours to which the tints are most inclined ; yet 
in crayon painting it is often best to compound the 


mixed colours upon the picture, such as blue and yellow 
instead of green; blue and carmine instead of purple; 
red and yellow instead of orange; in other circumstan- 
ces the compounds already mixed should be used ; but 
in this case there can be no absolute rule given, it must 
be left to the experience and discretion of the painter, 
though the student may be greatly assisted in the com- 
mencement of his studies, by an able master to direct 
and point out the best method to treat circumstances 
of this nature, as they occur in practice, which may 
appear at first obscure and mysterious, but will soon 
to a good capacity, become demonstrably clear upon 
certain and sure principles ; the circumstances that 
require different treatment are so various and so 
many, as to render it impossible here to descend to 
every particular. 

In finishing the cheeks, let the pure lake clear them 
from any dust contracted from the other crayons ; 
then, with the lake, may be intermixed the bright ver- 
milion ; and last of all (if the subject should require it) 
a few touches of the orange-coloured crayon, but with 
extreme caution ; after this sweeten that part with the 
finger as little as possible, for fear ofproducing a heavy, 
disagreeable effect on the cheeks : as the beauty of 
a crayon picture consists in one colour shewing itself 
through, or rather between another; this the student 
cannot too often remark, it being the only method of 
imitating beautiful complexions. 

The eye is the most difficult feature to execute in 
crayons, as every part must be expressed with the ut- 
most-nicety, to appear finished; at the same time that 
the painter must preserve its breadth and solidity, 


while he is particularizing the parts. To accomplish 
this, it will be a good general rule for the student to 
use his crayon, in sweetening, as much, and his finger 
as little as possible. When he wants a point to touch 
a small part with, he may break off a little of his crayon 
against the box, which will produce a corner fit to 
work with in the minutest parts. If the eye-lashes are 
dark, he must use some of the carmine and brown 
oker, and the crayon of carmine and black, and with 
these he may also touch the iris of the eye (if brown or 
hazel) making a broad shadow caused by the eye-lash. 
Red tints of vermilion, carmine and lake, will execute 
the corners of the eye properly ; but if the eye-lids are 
too red, they will have a disagreeable sore appearance. 
The pupil of the eye must be made of pure lamp-black; 
between this and the lower part of the iris, the light 
will catch very strong, but it must not be made too 
sudden, but be gently diffused round the pupil till it is 
lost in shade. When the eye-balls are sufficiently pre- 
pared, the shining speck must be made with a pure 
white crayon, which should be first broken to a point, 
and then laid on firm ; but as it is possible they may 
be defective in neatness, they should be corrected with 
a pin, taking off the redundant parts, by which means 
they may be formed as neat as can be required. 

The difficulty, with respect to the nose, is to preserve 
the lines properly determined, and at the same time so 
artfully blended into the cheek as to express its projec- 
tion, and yet no real line to be perceptible upon a close 
examination ; in some circumstances it should be quite 
blended with the cheek which appears behind it, and 
determined entirely with a slight touch of red chalk. 


The shadow caused by the nose is generally the dark- 
est in the whole face, partaking of no reflection from 
its surrounding parts. Carmine and brown oker, car- 
mine and black, and such brilliant crayons, will com- 
pose it best. 

The student having before prepared the lips with 
the strongest lake and carmine, &c. must, with these 
colours, make them completely correct ; and, when 
finishing, introduce the strong vermilions, but with 
great caution, as they are extremely predominant. 
This, if properly touched, will give the lips an appear- 
ance equal, if not superior to those executed in oils, 
notwithstanding the seeming superiority the latter 
has, by means of glazing, of which the former is en- 
tirely destitute. 

When the student paints the neck, he should avoid 
expressing the muscles too strong in the stem, nor 
should the bones appear too evident on the chest, as 
both have an unpleasing effect, denoting a violent agi- 
tation of the body, a circumstance seldom necessary to 
express in portrait painting. The most necessary part 
to be expressed, and which should ever be observed, 
(even in the most delicate subjects) is a strong mark- 
ing just above the place where Uie collar bones unite, 
and if the head is much thrown over the shoulders, 
some notice should be taken of the large muscle that 
rises from behind the ear, and is inserted into the pit 
between the collar bones. All inferior muscles should 
be, in general, quite avoided. iThe student will find 
this caution necessary, as most subjects, especially thin 
persons, have the muscles of the neck much more evi- 
dent than would be judicious to imitate. As few necks 


are too long, it may be necessary to give some addi- 
tion to the stem, a fault on the other side being quite 
unpardonable, nothing being more ungraceful than a 
short neck. In colouring the neck, let the student 
preserve the stem of a pearl v hue, and the light not so 
strong as on the chest. If any part of the breast ap- 
pears, its transparency must also be expressed by 
pearly tints, but the upper part of the chest should be 
coloured with beautiful vermilions, delicately blended 
with the other. 

Of the Materials used in Crayon Painting. 

THE perfection of the crayons consists, in a great 
measure, in their softness, for it is impossible to exe- 
cute a brilliant picture with them if they are otherwise ; 
on which account great care should be observed in the 
preparing them, to prevent their being hard. In all 
compositions, flake white, and white lead should be al- 
ways rejected, because the slightest touch with either 
of these will unavoidably turn black. 

The usual objection to crayon paintings is, that they 
are subject to change, but whenever this happens it is 
entirely owing to an injudicious use of the above-men- 
tioned whites, which will stand only in oils. To obvi- 
ate the bad effects arising from the use of such cray- 
ons, let the student make use of common whiting pre- 
pared in the following manner : 

Take a large vessel of water, put the whiting into it, 
and mix them wall together; let this stand about half 


a minute, then pour off the top into another vessel,and 
throw the gritty sediment away ; let what is prepared 
rest about a minute, and then pour it off as before, 
which will purify the whiting, and render it free from 
all dirt and grittiness. When this is done, lei the 
whiting settle, and then pour the water from it; after 
which lay it on the chalk to dry, and keep it for use, 
either for white crayons, or the purpose of preparing 
tints with other 'colours, for with this all other tints 
may be safely prepared. 

The student must be provided with a large, flexible 
pallette knife, a large stone and rauller to levigate the 
colours, two or three large pieces of chalk to absorb 
the moisture from the colours after they are levigated, a 
piece of flat glass to prevent the moisture from being 
absorbed too much till the colours are rolled into form, 
and vessels for water, spirits, &c. as necessity and 
convenience shall direct. 


Carmine and lake. It is rather difficult to procure 
either good carmine or good lake. Good carmine is 
inclined to the vermilion tint, and should be an im- 
palpable powder, and good lake to the carmine tint. 
The carmine crayons are prepared in the following 
manner : 

As their texture is inclinable to hardness, instead of 
grinding and rolling them, take a sufficient quantity 
of carmine, lay it upon the grinding stone, mix it with 
a levigating knife with spirits of wine, till it becomes 
smooth and even ; yet the less friction produced by the 
knife the better. The chalk stone being ready, lay the 


colour upon it to absorb the spirit, but be careful that 
it is laid on in a proper shape for painting. 

The simple colour being prepared, the next step is to 
compose the different tints by a mixture with whiting ; 
the proportion to be observed consisting of twenty gra- 
dations, to one, which may be clearly understood by 
the following directions : -Take some of the simple 
colour, and levigate it with spirits of wine, adding about 
one part of washed whiting to three parts of carmine, 
of which, when properly incorporated, make two par- 
cels. The next gradation should be composed of equal 
quantities of carmine and whiting, of which four cray- 
ons may be made. The third composition should have 
one fourth carmine, and three fourths whiting; of this 
make six crayons, which will be a good proportion 
with the rest. The last tint should be made of whiting, 
very faintly tinged with carmine, of which make about 
eight crayons, which will complete the above-men- 
tioned proportion. 

N. B. Though these tints made with whiting may 
be rolled, yet the pure carmine will not bear it, but 
must be left on the chalk stone till perfectly dry. 

Lake is a colour very apt to be hard ; to prevent 
which the student must observe the following parti- 
culars : 

Take about half the quantity of lake intended for 
the crayons, and grind it very fine with spirits of wine ; 
let it dry, and then pulverize it, which is easily done if 
the lake is good; then take the other half and grind it 
with spirits ; after which mix it with the pulverized 
lake, and lay it out directly in crayons on the chalk. 
The colour will not bear rolling. The simple colour 


being thus prepared, proceed with the compound cray- 
ons as directed before, and in the same degree of gra- 
dation as the carmine tints. 

Vermilion, or Native Cinnabar. The besVis inclined 
to the carmine tint. To prepare this colour, mix it on 
the stone with soft water, or spirits after which it may 
be rolled into crayons. 


Prussian Blue is a colour very apt to bind, and is 
rendered soft with more difficulty than carmine and 
lake. The same method of preparation is to be fol- 
lowed with this as is directed with respect to lake, 
only it is necessary to grind a larger quantity of the 
pure colour, as it is chiefly used for painting dra- 

Blue Verditer is a colour naturally gritty, and 
therefore it is necessary to wash it well. Its particles 
are so coarse as to require some binding matter to unite 
them, otherwise the crayons will never adhere toge- 
ther. To accomplish this, take a quantity sufficient 
to form two or three crayons, to which add a piece of 
slacked plaister of Paris about the size of a pea ; mix 
these well together, and form the crayons upon the 
chalk. This blue is extremely brilliant, and will be 
of great use in heightening draperies, &c. 

Greens. Brilliant greens are produced with great 
difficulty, which may be procured of those who make 
it their business to prepare them ; yet the following 
compositions will be found useful: Take yellow oker, 
and after grinding it with spirits, mix it with the pow- 
der of Prussian blue ; then temper it with a knife, and 


lay the crayons on the chalk without rolling them ; 
besides this use king's yellow, mixed with Prussian 
blue, brown oker, and Prussian blue. The crayons 
made of these last may be rolled. ' 

King's Yellow is the most useful and most brilliant, 
levigated with spirits of wine and compose the differ- 
ent tints as before directed. Yellow oker, and Naples 
yellow, ground with spirits will make useful crayons. 

Orange is produced with king's yellow and vermi- 
lion, ground together with spirits, and the tints form- 
ed as in other cases; but no great quantity of them is 

Cuhri's Earth is a fine dark brown. After six or 
eight of the simple crayons are prepared, several rich 
compound tints may be produced from it, by a mixture 
with carmine in various degrees: black, carmine, and 
this colour mixed together, make useful tints for 
painting hair ; several gradations may be produced 
from each of these by a mixture with whiting. 

Umber. May be treated in just the same manner, 
only it is necessary to levigate it with spirits of wine. 

Purples. Prussian blue ground with spirits, and 
mixed with pulverized lake, will produce a good pur- 
ple. Carmine thus mixed with Prussian blue will 
produce a purple something different from the former. 

Various tints may be made from either of these com- 
pounds by a mixture with whiting. 


Lamp-Black is the only full black that can be used 
with safety, as all others are subject to mildew. 

Cinnabar mixed with Carmine. This is a compo- 
sition of great use, and tints made from this with 
whiting will be found very serviceable. 

Carmine and black is another good compound, of 
which five or six gradations should be made, some par- 
taking more of the black, and others having the car- 
mine most predominant, besides several tints by a 
mixture with whiting. 

Cinnabar and black is also a very useful compound, 
from which several different tints should be made. 

.Prussian blue and black is another good compound 
and will be found of singular service in painting dra- 

It is impossible to lay down rules for forming every 
tint necessary in composing a set of crayons, there be- 
ing many accidental compositions entirely dependent 
on fancy and opinion. The student should make it a 
rule to save the leavings of his colours, for of these 
he may form various tints which will occasionally be 

Of rolling the Crayons and disposing them for Painting. 
THE different compositions of colours must be cut 
into a proper magnitude after they are prepared, in 
order to be rolled into pastils, for the convenience of 
using them. Each crayon should be formed in the 



left hand with the ball of the right, first formed cy- 
lindrically, and then tapered at each end. If the com 
position is too dry, dip the finger in water ; if too wet 
the composition must be laid upon the chalk again to 
absorb more of the moisture. The crayons should be 
rolled as quick as possible, and when finished, must 
be laid upon the chalk again to absorb all remaining 
moisture. After the gradation of tints from one c6- 
lour is formed, the chalk and the grinding-stone should 
be well scraped and cleansed with water before it is 
used for another colour. 

When the set of crayons is completed according to 
the rules prescribed, they should be arranged in classes 
for the convenience of painting with them. Some thin 
drawers divided into a number of partitions, is the 
most convenient method of disposing them properly. 
The crayons should be deposited according to the 
several gradations of lights. The bottom of the par- 
titions must be covered with bran, as a bed for the 
colours, because it not only preserves them clean, but 
prevents their breaking. 

The box made use of when the student paints, 
should be about a foot square, with nine partitions. 
In the upper corner, on the left hand, (supposing the 
box to be in the lap when he paints) let him place the 
black and grey crayons, (those being the most seldom 
used; ) in the second partition, the blues; in the third 
the greens and browns; in the first partition on the 
left hand of the second row, the carmines, lakes, ver- 
milions, and all deep reds ; the yellows and orange in 
the middle ; and the pearly tints next; and these last 
are of a very delicate nature, they must be kept very 


clean, that the gradations of colours may be easily 
distinguished : in the lowest row, let the first parti- 
tion contain a piece of fine linen rag to wipe the cray- 
ons with while they are using; the second, all the pure 
lake and vermilion tints ; and the other partitions 
may contain those tints, which from their complex 
nature cannot be classed with any of the former. 


THE art of painting in miniature is of very antient 
date. It is practised either on vellum or ivory. 

The best method, in painting on vellum, is to glue 
the edge of the vellum to a copper-plate or board, over 
which it is strained in this nanner : Let your vellum 
be every way a finger's breath larger than what you 
strain it on. Moisten the fair side of the vellum with 
a piece of fine wet linen, and put a piece of white 
paper to the other side. Then apply it to the plate or 
board, stretching it equally in all directions, lap the 
edges nicely round and glue them, taking care to let 
no glue pass under the part of the vellum on which 
you mean to paint. When the glue dries, and the 
edges of your vellum are thus fastened, you may pro- 
ceed with your work ; or you may (agreeable to the 
practice of some painters,) previously give the vellum 
a light wash of white lead well purified, to serve as a, 

M 2 


But ivory, being the material most frequently used 
at present for paiuting in miniature, we shall here give 
the most approved rules for painting on ivory. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the first es- 
sential point towards excellence in this as in all other 
branches of painting, is a thorough and well grounded 
knowledge in drawing, both from plaister, and from 
the life ; without correctness of drawing the greatest 
brilliancy of tints will at last be unsatisfactory. We 
should therefore recommend to the student in minia- 
ture, to continue, at his leisure hours, to copy from large 
drawings or busts, in chalks or water-colours, as cor- 
rectly as possible, which is the best means of giving 
facility to the hand in the drawing of smaller figures. 

Painting in miniature is of all others the most deli- 
cate and tedious in its process, being performed wholly 
with the point of the pencil. It is only fitted for works 
of a small size, and must be viewed near. 

Colours used in Miniature Painting. 

IN painting the face, the yellows that are used 
are five, viz. galls-tone, terra sienna, Nottingham ochre, 
Roman ochre, and Naples yellow ; the latter three of 
which are opaque colours, the other transparent. The 
greens are confined to one, which is sap-green. The 
blues are verditer, Prussian indigo, smalt, ultramarine 
and Antwerp. The reds are carmine, drop lake, 
Chinese vermilion, and Indian red. Under the class 
of reds, -may also :be put burnt terra Sienna, its 


colour inclining much that way, though more to the 
orange. The only browns, if any are used in the face 
are burnt umber and terra de Cassel, and they are only 
to be used in the mixture of dark shades. 

For painting draperies,we shall only add to the above 
colours, lamp-black, king's yellow, and flake white. 

Gum water. Choose the large white pieces of gum 
arabic, which are brittle and clear. Put them into a 
clean phial ; and pour water on them, well-strained 
and divested of all sandy particles. Let the gum wa- 
ter be about the thickness of water-gruel, that is, so 
thick that you can feel it in your fingers. The fresher 
made, the better. 

Grinding the colours, and preparing them for the 

PROVIDE yourself, if possible, with an agate flag 
and muller ; but if that cannot conveniently be had 
glass ones may answer, though not quite so well 
The glass muller and flag must be lightly roughened, 
with fine flour emery, which will give it a surface that 
will continue a long time. After being particularly 
careful that your flag, &c. are quite clean, lay some 
of the colour to be ground on it, bruising it whilst 
dry, gently with the muller ; then put a few drops of 
water on it, and grind it very carefully, not making it 
too wet, as that will prevent it from keeping suffi- 
ciently under the muller. When you think it is finely 
ground in the water, take your pallet-knife, or a thin- 
edged piece of ivory, scrape your colour altogether in 

M 3 


a little heap on your flag, which let dry for a short 
time, then add your gum-water to it gradually, having 
a piece of ivory near you, on which you are frequently 
to lay some of the colour with a camel-hair pencil, 
thin: and if you perceive the colour in the smallest 
degree to shine, when dry, it is gummed enough, then 
you are to scrape it off your flag and transfer it to your 

There are some colours which will not bear a suffir 
cient quantity of gum to make them shine, without 
injuring their 'qualities, as smalt, ultramarine, and 
verditer blues. 

Of hair pencils. Manner of choosing them, fyc. 
Pencils for painting in miniature are not made of 
camel's hair, but of the tips of squirrel's tails, and of 
these there are two kinds, the dark brown, and yellow- 
ish red. Pencils made of the latter 1 kind are called 
sable pencils, and are of a stiffer nature than the 
others. They are a useful kind of pencil, as long as 
the fine flue at the end of the hair remains, on account 
of their elasticity ; but the instant the flue is worn off, 
they, from their harshness, become useless ; at all 
events, no pencil can be superior to one made of the 
common kind of hair. The error too prevalent 
amongst young miniature painters, is that of prefer- 
ring a very small pencil for their work, vainly hoping 
by the assistanc e of such a one, to execute their pic- 
ture with more neatness and accuracy ; but in this 
they will, by experience, find themselves mistaken ; 
the finest and most highly finished picture being exe- 
cuted with a middle-sized pencil, the point of which 


being not only sufficiently neat, but from its body con- 
taining a quantity of colour in fluid, enables the artist 
to give that mellow firm touch which is so generally 
admired by connoisseurs in the art. The young artist 
should choose a middle-sized pencil, with a good 
spring and point, both of which he will know by 
drawing the pencil lightly through his mouth, and 
touching it on his thumb-nail ; if he finds it, on being 
moderately wet, to spring again into its form, after 
being bent, it is a good sign ; but as there are many 
pencils possessed of that quality, which are deficient 
in another material one, namely, that of a good point, 
that must be very cautiously looked to, by turning the 
pencil round on the nail, in every direction, observing 
the hairs at the point keep equally together of a 
length, and non shooting out on either side (which 
U often occasioned by the pencil-maker putting the 
hair into the quill with a twist in it). All these de- 
fects being carefully guarded against, you are sure of 
being in possession of a very principal material for 
miniature painting. 


Method of choosing, bleaching, and preparing it. 

Of ivory there are various kinds, the distinction of 
which in this art is of very material consequence. 
Ivory, newly cut, and full of sap, is not easily to be 
judged of; the general transparency it exhibits hi that 
state, almost precluding the possibility of discovering 
whether it is coarse-grained or fine, streaky or the con- 
trary, unless to the artist who, by a long course of ex- 
perience, is familiarised to it. The best way to discover 
M 4 


the quality of it is, by holding it grain ways to the light, 
then holding it up and looking through it, still turning 
it from side to side, and very narrowly observing 
whether there are any streaks in it; this you will, 
unless the ivory is very freshly cut, easily discovery 
and in this you cannot be too particular. There is a 
species of ivory which is very bad for painting on, 
although it has no streaks in it, being of a horny 
coarse nature, which will never suffer the colours to 
be thrown out iu the brilliant manner a fine species of 
ivory will ; you are therefore not only to be cautious 
in choosing ivory free from streaks, but likewise that 
which has the finest grain and close. We shall now 
proceed to treat on the manner of preparing the ivory 
for painting on. 

You are to heat a smoothing iron in so small a 
degree that you can hold your hand on the face of it, 
so long as you can reckon three or four in moderate 
time : then put your ivory between a clean piece of 
folded paper, on which place the hot iron, turning 
your ivory frequently, until it becomes a transparent 
white : for you are to observe that very particularly, an 
opaque white not answering' for face-painting in mi- 
niature, as it would give a harshness and unpleasant 
appearance to your picture. 

When you think your ivory is sufficiently white for 
your purpose, lay it under some flat weight until it 
cools, as that will prevent its warping. Then proceed 
to prepare it: for which purpose you must pound some 
pumice-stone in a mortar, as clear and as fine as you 
can, which put into a fine linen or cambric bag, tying 
it about midway, tight, but leaving room for the 


pumice-dust to sift through the bottom. Then get a 
long mustard-bottle, perfectly clean and dry, in 
which suspend the pumice-duct, covering the top with 
the muzzle of the bag, so that nothing can come out, 
then shake the bottle smartly in your hand, when the 
fine particles of the pumice will sift out. and remain at 
the bottom of the bottle, thereby preventing any 
coarse grams from being amongst what you are going 
to use, which would very materially injure your ivory. 
Your pumice-dust being prepared, scrape the leaves of 
ivory with a sharp pen-knife, until the scratches of the 
cutting saw are entirely obliterated ; then take either 
a piece of Dutch polishing rush, or a piece of middling 
fine patent glass paper, and carefully polish your ivory 
with it, not by passing your hand backwards and for- 
wards, but in a circular manner, until you have it 
pretty level ; then strew some of your pumice-dust on 
the ivory, and put a few drops of water on it : which 
done, with your muller work on it in a circular manner 
as before, until you find every part has equally received 
the pumice, which you will know by its exhibiting a 
dead grave appearance : those parts which have not 
received the pumice continuing to shine in spots, 
which you must still labour to do away with your 
pumice and muller. When you find it pumiced to your 
satisfaction, take a clean sponge and fair water, with 
which gently wash your ivory free from the pumice- 
dust; taking care not to nib it hard, for fear of giving 
the ivory a gloss that would prevent your colours from 
taking on it so pleasant as you could wish ; after this 
lay your ivory to dry, and in a few hours it will be fit 
for use. Then paste it on a piece of wove paper, by 
M 4 


touching the back of it merely at the edges ; as gum- 
water, or any other cement, being put near the centre 
of your ivory, will cause a dark unpleasant spot per- 
haps to appear through, in the very part where your 
face is to be painted. 

Instructions for mixing compound tints for the face. 

Purple is formed of either ultramarine, Prussian 
blue, smalt, or indigo, mixed with either carmine or 
drop lake. Ultramarine, although the most beautiful 
and brilliant of colours by itself, yet in any mixture it 
loses that perfection, but still retains a sufficient share 
of brightness to render it a desirable tint in the pur- 
plish grey shadows of the face. Prussian blue mixed 
as before-mentioned, makes a bright or dark purple 
according as the quantities of either colours are poi-- 
tioned ; but indigo makes still darker, owing to its 
great natural depth of colour. Smalt and carmine, or 
lake, form nearly the same tint as ultramarine, and 
may be used nearly for the same purpose. 

Grey. Of grey tints there are various kinds, accord- 
ing to the subjects they are required for. A warm 
grey tint may be made by duly portioning burnt terra 
Sienna, Prussian blue, and drop lake : the more terra 
Sienna in it, the wanner the tint; the more Prussian 
blue and lake, the colder. Another grey tint, used 
with success by some eminent miniature painters, was 
composed of Prussian blue and Chinese vermilion, 
but on account of the unkind manner with which 
vermilion incorporates with any other colour, it re- 
quired a greater proportion of gum than ordinary to 
make them work or keep together. A third grey 


tint, which is an excellent one, is formed of drop lake, 
sap green, and Prussian blue. 

Olive tints. A very fine olive tint is formed of gall 
stone, Nottingham ochre, and carmine, or lake : and 
another of sap green and lake simply. 

Of hair tints. A beautiful hair colour, either dark 
or light, according to the quantities of colours, is made 
of carmine, lamp-black, and sap green. The manner 
of forming it is only to be acquired by practice : but 
when once attained, will be found worth the time of 
the trial. That very difficult tint which is often to 
be met with in children's hair, by the proper junction 
of these colours will be produced to perfection. Other 
hair tints may be made of terra de Cassel simply, or 
by the addition of lamp-black. Some excellent paint- 
ers make all their hair tints of burnt terra Sienna, 
lamp-black, and Nottingham ochre, the latter being 
added only when there is light hair wanting to be 
represented. Burnt umber has been substituted for 
terra Sienna, along with the lamp-black, and forms a 
good tint; but care must be taken to avoid either 
the greenish or reddish cast, which it is apt to pro- 

Tints for Jine linen, gauze, #c. Of all tints in 
transparent painting, such as are the miniature works 
of the present day, there are none more difficult to as- 
certain: for the delicacy not only of mixture, but the 
delicacy of touch, conveys the idea of beauty in the 
thinness and folding of fine linen or gauze, the true 
painting of which throws a veil over the defects in 
other parts of the picture. We shall therefore only 
observe, that any of the tints, under the head of grey 
M 6 


will, properly managed, answer the purpose. Having 
now pointed out the manner of preparing the delicate 
transparent tints for miniature painting, we proceed 
to treat of the grosser ones, namely, those for dra- 

Of colours proper for men's draperies. 

We shall, under this head, make some general 
observations; the first of which is, that, in all cloth 
draperies for men's portraits, it is necessary to add 
some flake white ; as it not only gives the colour the 
dead appearance which cloth exhibits, butlikewise its 
being incorporated with the flake white, gives it a body 
which makes the flesh tints appear to more advantage. 
The next observation is, that in grinding up your dra- 
peries, you are to make them appear several degrees 
lighter in colour than you want them to be when dry, 
for this reason ; the flake white is a colour so very 
heavy, that, after you float in your coat, it will sink to 
the bottom, and leave your colours several degrees 
darker than when it was wet; and finally you are not 
to be too heavy or thick in floating in your draperies, 
but merely to see that your colour is evenly spread 
over the part. 

There are four modes of working in miniature 
painting ; namely, floating, washing in, handling, and 
marking. The first process, which is floating, and is 
chiefly used for draperies, is thus performed : Having 
marked with your pencil where your drapery is to be, 
grind up your colour on your flag (not putting a 
.quantity of gum water, that would make it shine, as 
it would frustrate your purpose); then take a large soft 


hair pencil, and, having previously laid your ivory on 
a very level table, fill your pencil plentifully with the 
colour, and lay it quick all over the parts of the ivory 
you want covered, seeing that it runs on every part 
equally, which, if kept in a proper fluid state, it will 
readily do; then lay it in some place to dry, where it 
is not likely to receive dust, when you will have a fine 
level surface ready to work the shadows of your dra- 
pery on in a couple of hours. Washing in is performed 
when your picture is on your desk, by filling your 
pencil moderately with colour, and giving a very 
broad stroke rather faintly, as the contrary would not 
answer : this manner is chiefly used in beginning the 
lesser back grounds, and likewise in laying on the 
general flesh tint of the face. It is also used in the 
first touches of the dark shadows, which ought to 
be begun faint and broad. Handling is the man- 
ner in which all the fleshy parts of the miniature 
must be worked, after the first washing in; and lastly 
marking consists in the sharp-spirited touches given 
to the different features, in order to give that animated 
appearance so necessary to constitute a fine pic- 

Black drapery is formed of lamp'black burnt, and 
flake white; and must be laid in with a good deal 
of the latter, as otherwise it would be very difficult to 
manage the shadows so as to produce a pleasing 

Blue drapery may be made of either Prussian blue 
or Antwerp blue, mixed with white ; indigo being too 
much inclined to a blackish cast. 
Green drapery is well made, of king's yellow and 


Prussian and Antwerp blue. The more blue, the 
darker the green; and the more yellow the con- 

Yellow drapery cannot be so well represented by 
any colour as king's yellow, laid thin, with a moderate 
quantity of gum in it. 

Drab colour is well represented by a judicious mix- 
ture of umber in its raw state, and flake white. 

A queen's brown, as it is called, is made of burnt 
Roman ochre, a little lamp-black and lake, with flake 
white amongst it. 

Claret colour may be well represented by a mixture 
of Terra de Cassel, a little lamp-black and lake. The 
more black and lake the deeper the colour. 

Dark brown can be formed by a junction of Not- 
tingham ochre, lake and lamp-black. 

Lilac is made of carmine, Prussian blue and flake 

Grey can be formed only of lamp black, flake- 
white, and the smallest quantity of lake laid in very 

Reddish brown is best made of Indian red, very 
little lamp-black, and flake white. 

Scarlet is a colour very difficult to lay down rules 
for making, as in sC>me pictures it is dangerous to make 
it too bright, for fear of hurting the effect of the face, 
by its brilliancy catching- the eye too readily; conse* 
quently, if the subject you are painting from life is 
very pale, you run a very great risk by annexing a 
very bright scarlet to his picture. We shall therefore 
only mention that a very bright scarlet is made of 
Chinese vermilion and carmine, ground together (with- 


out any flake and white ; and if you want it still ren- 
dered brighter, when it is dry, fill your pencil with 
plain carmine, mixed with thin gum water, and glaze 
over it nicely ; but if, on the contrary, you wish to 
sadden or take away a share of its brilliancy, add a little 
flake white to it, and that will have the desired effect. 

Of painting the face in Miniature. 

You are first to provide yourself with a mahogany 
desk for painting on, which is a box about fourteen 
inches high, and a foot broad on the top ; there is to 
be a lid covered with green cloth, which is to have a 
pair of small hinges at the front, and to lift occasionally 
with a supporting rail at the back, and notches, so as 
readily to adjust it to any height. About the middle 
of the green cloth there is to be a slip of very thin 
mahogany, glued at each end, but the centre of it left 
free, to fasten your ivory by, slipping it between the 
mahogany and green cloth. 

The next thing you are to observe, is the choice of 
your light which in this kind of painting cannot be too 
particularly attended to; it not being like oil-painting, 
where the rays of the sun may be kept out by blinds, 
&c. without causing any material inconvenience. A 
north light, or as nearly as possible to it, must be at- 
tained. If there are more than one window in the 
room, the second must be closed, so as to admit no 
light; and the one you sit at is to have a green baize 
curtain against the lower part of it, to reach about a 
foot higher than your head, as you sit at your paint- 
ing desk, with your left towards the light. 

Having placed your sitter at the distance of about a 


yard and a half from you, begin drawing the outlines 
of the face ; and in this be very particular, as much 
depends on it. When you have them drawn correctly 
begin to lay in the colour, faintly, of the iris of the eye, 
the shadows under the eye-brows in a grey tint, and 
under the nose rather a warm purple, in broad faint 
washes : ever keeping this in your mind, that you must, 
in the process of painting the face of a miniature pic- 
ture, go on faintly at the beginning, and not hurry in 
your colours, as such conduct will to a certainty, make 
your tints look dirty, and your picture harsh and dis- 
agreeable. Having, as before observed, laid in your 
grey tints where your shadows are to fall, go on heigh- 
tening them by degrees, working in hatches with a 
middling full pencil, not too washy, nor too dry ; as 
the former would have been the means of muddying 
your colours, and the latter would make them raw. 
When you think you have pretty strongly marked out, 
and worked up the shadows, mix a wash of either gall 
stone, or Nottingham ochre, and drop lake, with which 
faintly go over the fleshy parts of the face, where the 
shadows do not come; and then proceed to heighten 
carnations on the cheeks, thecolour of the beard, if any 
such appears, still working in the handling manner 
already mentioned, in various directions; so that, after 
some time working, the intersections appear like so 
many nice points or dots. Observe, as a general rule, 
that it is much easier to warm the tints of your face, 
than to cool them, by working proper colours over it. 
Itis therefore best to begin with cool greys and purples, 
and towards the finishing of the picture, to add warmth, 
if necessary, by gradually working such colours as 


galls-tone, terra Sienna, or the like, over in addition 
to the carmine or lake that may be necessary to pro- 
duce the tint of nature. 

From the variety of style adopted by different minia- 
ture painters, it is very difficult for a young beginner 
to ascertain which is best to be followed; and as there 
is a certain degree of mechanical attention to be paid 
to the management of the water colours, to preserve 
them clear and free frommuddiness, which is difficult 
to attain, we recommend to the young artist to pro- 
cure a good miniature, if possible, and keep it bv him, 
observing the style of penciling, and management of 
the colour, at the same time letting nature be his guide 
in the making of his features and colouring of his 

In the management of back-grounds, the young 
painter is to observe their twofold purpose : that of 
giving the lights their proper value; and on the other 
hand of harmonizing the colours of the face, by art- 
fully engaging the eye with somewhat of similitude in 
the back ground to a tint in the face-, which otherwise, 
in course of working to express a particular part, might 
appear too prevalent. 

In painting a head on an oval piece of ivory, such as 
the present form of a miniature picture, draw the chin 
as nearly as possible in the centre of the ivory, unless 
the person is very tall, in which case it must be higher 
up ; and if very short the contrary. 



THIS method of painting has been little practised in 
England. For the information of the curious we give 
the following directions, which will enable them to 
produce with ease a picture in this very curious 

The first method is described in a letter from Mr. 
Febroni, the inventor, published in Maty's Review for 

" Mr. Lewis, of Gottenbrun, has lately executed a 
picture according to my manner : it is done upon wood 
^jpared with wax, and is ren.;*le ! *e vivacity 
and splendour of its colours. I believe I have already 
mentioned to you, in what this new manner consists: 
you melt, or rather dissolve, some good white wax in 
naptha patrolei, without colour, till such time as the 
mixture has acquired, by cooling, the appearance of an 
oil beginning to freeze. Mix your colours in this, and 
then keep them in small tin boxes ; you dilute them more 
or less, with the same naptha, according as they dry, 
or as you wish to use them. This painting allows time 
enough to give all the finishing you desire; and if you 
wish to work in haste, you may dry as fast as you please 
by exposing it to the heat. When the picture is finish- 
ed, it is of that fine tone which is preferable to any 
varnish ; but if you choose a varnish only, warm the 
picture, and the naptha will evaporate. When this is 


done, you must wait till the picture cools, when you 
must polish it by rubbing it over nicely with a cloth. 
If you wish to have it still brighter, you must melt 
white wax on the fire, without suffering it to boil ; mix 
a little naptha with this, and draw a lair of it over the 
picture already heated, by means of a brazier, which 
you hold under, if the picture is small, or before it if 
it is large; the colours at first appear as spoiled,but you 
restore them to their first beauty, if, when the layer of 
wax is cooled, you polish it by rubbing with a cloth; 
it is then that the colours take the high tone of oil. 
If you fear the effect of fire for your picture, you are to 
make a soap of wax, which is to be done by boiling 
white wax in water, in which you have dissolved a 
twentieth part of the weight of the wax of marine 
alkali, or sel de sourde, very pure. Rub your picture 
with this soap; and when it is dry, polish it as before- 
mentioned ; if you do not choose either of these me- 
thods, give your painting its usual varnish ofsandarac 
and spirit of turpentine. This method has been 
found preferable to all those that have been tried, 
and superior to oil for the beauty of their colours. 
There are many fine colours which cannot be used in 
oil, that may be made use of with great success in 
this method. 

As the naptha entirely evaporates, one may be as- 
sured, that this is the true method of painting in wax. 
There is likewise much to hope for duration of the 
pictures painted in this manner, as wax is much less 
liable to alteration than oil, and does not so easily 
part with its phlogiston." 



THIS manner of painting is executed with great 
facility: it gives all the softness that can be desired, 
and is easy to work ; there are no outlines to draw, 
nor shadows to insert, but your colours are put on with- 
out the trouble of either. The prints for this purpose 
are done in mezzotinto, but many of those well finish- 
ed, engraved in the manner of chalks, are very 
proper; for their shadows blended together, when 
rubbed on the glass, appear soft and united as draw- 
ings on Indian ink ; such prints to have their margin 
cut off; then on a piece of fine crown glass very 
clean, the size of the print, and free from knots arid 
scratches, lay some Venice turpentine on one side, quite 
thin and smooth with a painter's brush lay the print 
flat in water; when thoroughly wetted, which requires 
twenty-four hours for some sorts of paper, but other 
sorts are ready in two hours, take it carefully out, and 
lay it between dry papers that the superfluous water 
may be absorbed ; next, lay the damp print flat on a 
table, with its face uppermost, then holding the glass 
over it, without suffering the turpentine to touch it till 
it is exactly even with the print, gently press the glass 
in several parts, and turning it, press the print with 
your fingers, drawing it from the centre to the edges, 
till it is quite smooth and free from blisters ; when this 
is done, wet the back of your print with a sponge till 
the paper will come off with your fingers ; then rub it 
.gently and the white paper will roll off, only the ink 


which formed the impresion, remaining. When dry, 
with a camel-hair pencil, dipped in oil of turpentine, 
wet it all over, and it will be perfectly transparent, and 
fit for painting on ; a sheet of white paper, placed 
behind, will contribute to its transparency. Lay the 
lighter colours first on the light parts of your prints, 
and the darker over the shaded ; and having once laid 
on the brighter colours, it is not material if the darker 
sorts are laid a little over them, for the first colour 
will hide those laid on afterwards. 

The glass, when painted, must stand three or four 
days to dry, and be carefully covered from dust. The 
proper colours are those used in oil. 


THE matter of the enamel must be first finely levi- 
gated and searced ; and the body to be enamelled 
should be made perfectly clean. The enamel must 
then be laid on as even as possible by a brush or pen- 
cil, being first tempered with oil of spike ; and the 
distance of time betwixt the laying on the ground, and 
burning the piece, should not be too great ; because 
the oil will exhale, and leave the matter of the ena- 
mel a dry incohering powder, which will be liable to 
be rubbed or shaken off by the least violence. This 
is the common method; but there is a much better 
way of managing this part of the work by means of a 
searce, in which the enamel is spread with very little 
.trouble, and the greatest part of the oil of spike saved. 


The method of performing this is, to rub the surface 
to be enamelled over with oil of spike ; and then, be- 
ing laid on a sheet of paper, or piece of leather, to save 
that part of the enamel which does not fall on a pro- 
per object, to scarce the matter on the oiled surface 
till it lie of a proper thickness; but great care must be 
taken in this method of proceeding, not to shake or 
move too forcibly the pieces of work thus covered 
with the powdered enamel. 

It is usual to add oil of turpentine to the oils of spike 
or lavender, in order to make them go further, and 
save the expence attending the free use of them ; and 
others add also a little olive or linseed oil ; or some, in 
the place of them, crude turpentine. The use of the 
spirit of turpentine is very allowable : for it is the 
same for this purpose as the oils of spike or lavender, 
except that it wants the glutinous quality which makes 
them serviceable in spreading the enamel ; but, with 
respect to the use of the oils of olive and linseed, or 
any other substantial oil, it is very detrimental ; tend- 
ing to reduce the metalline calxes ; and leaving a 
small proportion of black coal or ashes, which roust 
necessarily injure the white colour of the ground. 

When plates, as in the case of pictures, dial-plates, 
&c, are to be enamelled, they should always be 
made convex on the outside, and concave within ; and 
all pieces of enamel formed of metal, where the figure 
does not admit of their being thick and solid, should 
be of the same kind or form ; otherwise they will be 
very apt to warp in the heat, and cannot be brought 
straight after they are taken out of the fire, without 
cracking the enamel. For this reason, likewise, it is 


proper' to enamel the work all over, as well on the 
wrong as right sides, to prevent the heat from cal- 
cining the metal ; which would both contribute to its 
warping, and weaken the texture of it. 

The enamel being laid on the body to be enamelled, 
when the fixed muffle is used, the piece must be gently 
lifted on to the false bottom, andput in that slate into 
the muffle fixed in a furnace, by thrusting the false bot- 
tom into it as far as it will go; but it is better to defer 
this till the fire be perfectly in order, which may be 
known by putting a bit of tile or china, with some 
enamel on it, of the same tone with that used as a 
proof; and another proof of the same kind may be 
also put along with the work into the muffle ; which 
being taken out, may show how the operation pro- 

Pit-coal may be used in the furnace, where enamel 
is burnt with a fixed muffle, or in coffins, which is 
indeed one principal conveniency attending the use of 
themit, as saves a considerable expence of charcoal; 
but where the open muffle is used, charcoal alone 
should be employed, as the fumes of mineral coal are 
very detrimental to some colours, and destructive of 
the grounds, if whitened by arsenic, as the common 
white glass. 

The colours being prepared, they mustbe reduced to 
powder by due levigation and washing over, where 
they are required to be extremely fine, and there is no 
unverified salt in the mixture. They mustthen be tem- 
pered on a China or Dutch tile, with oil of spike or 
lavender, to which most artists add likewise oil of tur- 
pentine, and some (but we think erroneously), a little 


linsed or olive oil, and in this state they are to be used 
as paint of any other kind ; but it should be avoided 
to mix more of the colours with the essential oils than 
will be immediately used ; because they dry away ex- 
tremely fast, and would not only be wasted, but give 
a cohesion to the particles of the colours, that would 
make them work less freely when again diluted with 

The colours being thus laid on the pieces to be paint- 
ed, the proceeding must be in all respects the same as 
with the grounds, in whatever manner they are to be 
burnt, either in the muffles or coffins; but greater 
nicety must be observed with respect to the fire, as 
the effects of any error in that point are of much 
greater consequence in the burning the colours than 
the grounds ; especially if the white of the grounds be 
formed from the calx of tin or antimony, and not 

Pit-coal, as was above observed, may be employed 
for burning as well the colours as the grounds, where 
the muffle or coffins are used ; or any other method 
pursued that wholly hinders the smoke and fumes 
from having any access to the enamel. 


ENAMEL painting differs from all other kinds, in the 
vehicle employed for the colours (to hold the parts to- 
gether, and bind them to the ground they are laid 
upon); this is glass, or some vitreous body, which be- 
ing mixed with the colours, and fused, or melted, by 


means of heal, becomes fluid : and, having incorpo- 
rated with the colours in that state, forms together 
with them, a hard mass when grown cold ; it answers, 
therefore, the same end in this, as oil, gum-water, size, 
or varnish, in the other kinds of painting. 

The glass, or vitreous body, applied to this purpose 
of mixing with the colours, in order to bind them to 
the grounds, is called a flux; and makes one of the 
principal substances used in enamel painting; when 
this flux is easily fusible, that is to say, melts with a 
less degree of heat, it is in the stile of those who work 
in enamel said to be soft, and when it is reluctant to 
melt, and requires a greater degree of heat, it is called 
hard ; these terms are as well applied to the matter of 
the enamel grounds, and all other vitrous substances 
concerned as to the fluxes. It is, in general, a perfec- 
tion of the flux to be soft, or run easily into fusion ; 
but the great point with respect to this particular, is, 
that when several mixtures of colours and fluxes are 
used at the same time, they should all correspond to 
each other in the degree of this quality; otherwise 
some would be rendered too fluid, and perhaps run the 
matter of the enamel ground into fusion, and mix 
with it, while others remained solid and insufficiently 
fused themselves. It is always necessary, likewise, 
that the enamel of the ground should be considerably 
harder than the mixtures for the colours ; for, if they 
both melt with the same degree of heat, they will ne- 
cessarily run together. 

It being requisite that the body painted in enamel 
should undergo a heat sufficient to melt soft glass, the 


matter of such body can only be gold, silver, copper, 
porcelain, or china-ware, hard glass, and earthen- 
ware; and where the metals are used, if the painting 
be of the nature of a picture, or demand a variety of 
colours, it is necessary that a ground of white, or some 
other colour, should be laid on the metal ; the body of 
which ground must necessarily be of the same vitreous 
nature as the flux, but harder, as nothing else can en- 
dure so great a heat that is capable of incorporating 
with, and binding the matter of the white or other 
colour to the surface of the metal. The ground, there- 
fore, makes another principal substance used in ena- 
mel painting. 

The third substance is the colour, which must like- 
wise be a body capable of suffering the heat of melted 
glass; and such as will either itself be converted into 
glass, or kindly incorporate with it, in a melted state ; 
this, of course, confines the matter of such colour to 
metals, earths, or other mineral bodies ; all vegetable 
and animal substances being calcined and analized, 
with a less degree of heat, than the lowest sufficient 
to work enamel. 

The fourth kind of substance is what we shall call 
the secondary vehicle, which is, some fluid body for 
laying on the ground, and working with the pencil, the 
flux and colours when mixed together, since, as they 
form only a dry powder, they could not be used as 
paint, without some such medium ; but as this is to 
serve only for spreading and laying on the matter of 
the enamel, and not, like other vehicles, to assist in 
holding the colours together, and binding them to the 
ground, (that being in this kind of painting the office 


of the flux) it is necessary that it should be some such 
substance as will evaporate and dry away without leav- 
ing any part behind ; as it would otherwise be hete- 
rogeneous matter, with regard to the enamel, and 
consequently injurious to it. Essential oils have been 
therefore generally used for this purpose, as they have 
the quality of wholly drying away on the first ap- 
proach of heat, together with a slight unctuosity, 
which renders them capable of making the matter of 
the enamel work properly with the pencil. 

The preparation of these several substances have 
been in a great measure monopolized by the Vene- 
tians, except what were formerly prepared at Dresden ; 
of late, however, they have been introduced in the 
China Manufactories of Worcester and Birmingham, 
with the most brilliant success. The few others who 
have had any knowledge of this matter, have prac- 
tised the preparing only some kinds ; and even at pre- 
sent there are, perhaps, few in this country who make 
more than a small part of the variety necessary ; for 
though many possess the knowledge of some parti- 
cular articles, yet they are ignorant with regard to 
others, which are again, perhaps, known to those who 
are ignorant of these. As there has been hitherto no 
means afforded to the practisers of it, of learning the 
particulars of this art in a system, and a deeper know- 
ledge of the principles and practice of chemistry is 
requisite to the attaining it without being taught, than 
could well fall to the share of painters or other artists, 
we shall, therefore, be more minute in our instructions 
for the making the several kinds of the grounds, 
fluxes, and colours, in order that they who are cou- 


cerned in, or may be desirous to apply themselves to 
the art of painting in enamel, which is now become 
the basis of a considerable manufacture in this coun- 
try, may furnish themselves with whatever is neces- 
sary in its greatest perfection. 

Besides the knowledge of the preparation of the 
above substances, and of that part of the art of using 
them which belongs to painters in general, there is 
another requisite ; this is the burning, as it is called, 
the grounds, in order to forming them on the body to 
be painted, or enamelled ; as also the colours with 
the fluxes after they are laid on the grounds. What is 
meant by burning, is the giving such a heat to the 
matter, when laid on the body to be painted, as will 
fuse or melt it ; and consequently give to the flux, or 
vitreous part of the composition, the proper qualities of 
a vehicle for binding the colours to the ground, and 
holding the parts together. As this requires a parti- 
cular apparatus, we shall endeavour to shew the me- 
thod of constructing it in the most expeditious and easy 
manner, and give such cautions for the conduct of the 
operation, both for burning the grounds and painting, 
as may best teach those who are less experienced in 
it, to attain to perfection in this art. It cannot be 
expected, nevertheless, considering the nicety of the 
subject, such directions cau be given as will ensure 
success in the first trials, with regard to several of the 
processes, or even the general operations; but who- 
ever will make themselves masters of the principles 
on which they depend, which are all along intimated, 
will easily be able to correct their own errors. 

' A judgment formed by some little experience, is 
likewise requisite for the preparing well the colours 


with certainty ; for as different parcels of the same 
substance vary frequently in their qualities with re- 
gard to the degree of proportion, it is necessary to 
make allowance accordingly in the proportion of the 
quantities in the mixtures ; this cannot be done till 
some little previous trial be made, and the power of 
judging of them be gained by an experimental ac- 
quaintance with them ; but as the materials in general 
are very cheap, and the experiments may be made in 
the same fire where actual business is done, whoever 
would excel in the art of preparing and using enamels, 
should take a considerable scope of experimental en- 
quiry into the effect of all the various proportions and 
commixtures of the substances used. 

Of the Substances used for forming Fluxes. 

MINUM, or red lead, is used as a fluxing body, for 
forming the enamel for grounds; as also in com- 
pounding fluxes for the colours ; it requires no pre- 
paration for these purposes ; only it is proper it should 
be pure, which may be known by the method before 
given ; this flux renders the enamel soft ; but produ- 
cing some proportion of yellow colour, is not fit for 
all uses. , 

Fixed alkaline salt of vegetables is sometimes used 
also in forming the mixture for enamel grounds ; as 
likewise in some compositions of fluxes for the colours 
it makes a less soft enamel than the lead, but is free 
from yellow, or any other colour, and therefore proper 
for some purposes. 

* 3 


Borax is a salt of very peculiar qualities ; amongst 
which, is that of promoting vitrification, and the fusion 
of any glass when vitrified in a greater degree than any 
other substance known ; on which account it is of the 
greatest consequence in forming fluxes for enamel. It 
requires, nevertheless, either to be previously calcined 
or brought to a vitreous state, which it suffers from the 
application of moderate heat alone ; and it must also 
be finely powdered before it be mixed with other in- 
gredients in fluxes. Its use is not much known in com- 
mon practice, though of the greatest consequence to 
the art of enamelling; as not only a set of softer co- 
lours may be produced by the aid of it, than can be 
otherwise had, but the degree of each maybe brought 
to correspond, by the employing it in different pro- 
portions, according to the respective hardness of the 
other ingredients, which differ so much as not to be 
regulated justly by another means. 

Common salt may also be used as a flux in enamel- 
ling, particularly where there is occasion for glazings ; 
as it is not only extremely fluid, and free of tenacity 
when used, but also less subject to crack than any 
Other vitreous body whatever; but for fluxes for 
grounds and colours in enamel, it is not frequently ne- 
cessary to multiply ingredients, as the above three 
substances may, when properly applied, sufficiently 
answer most purposes. The same reasoning extends 
to nitre and arsenic ; which, though they have the 
qualities of fluxes, possess yet along with them such 
others, with respect to their effect on several of the 
substances that compose the colours, as renders the 
methods of using them difficult and complex. 


Of substances used for forming the body of enamel, or 

WHITE sand is used as a body for the fluxes and 
grounds of enamel: it should be reduced previously to 
an impalpable powder, in order that it may be mixed 
more intimately with the other ingredients, which not 
only accelerates the vitrification, but renders the glass 
much more perfect. The kind of sand proper for this 
purpose, is that brought from Lynn, in Norfolk, and is 
called by the name of that place. 

Flints are used for the same purpose as the white 
sand; and it is proper to use them when that cannot 
be procured of the right kind. They require to be 
calcined before they are applied to any purpose of vi- 
trification. This is to be done, by putting them into 
any fire, and continuing them there till the whole sub- 
stance become white, when they must be taken out ; 
and while in their full heat, immersed in cold water, 
and kept there for some time. By such treatment 
they will be rendered of a very brittle and calcareous 
nature, and very easy to be powdered, which must be 
done to a perfect degree, for the reason above given. 
Where small quantities of the matter of any kind of 
enamel is to be prepared, calcined flints are preferable 
to sand, as they are much more easily reduced to an 
impalpable powder, and the trouble of the previous 
calcination is very little. 

There is a sort of stone, which the French call milon, 
that forms the upper crust, and lies round the freestone 
in most quarries. This stone will lose its tenacity in 



a moderate fire ; and, when calcined, runs much sooner 
into vitrification than either flints or sand; it is there- 
fore, when it can be obtained, a better matter for the 
body of fluxes, or soft enamel, than either of the other. 
It will, with the same proportion of the fluxing ingre- 
dients, make a much softer flux ; or, it otherwise ad- 
mits of the diminution of the proportion of some of 
them, which, for many experimental reasons, is, in cer- 
tain cases, an advantage. 

Of the substances used for producing a -white colour in 
enamel, for forming the grounds. 

PUTTY, or calcined tin, is used as a body of colour 
for the enamel grounds. As tin is very troublesome in 
calcination, requiring a long continuance of fire, and 
to be spread into a very thin surface, it is much the 
best way to procure it for the purposes of enamelling 
readily calcined, of those who make it their proper 
business to calcine it for the use of lapidaries,and other 
artists who use it ; for they have large furnaces, fitly 
constructed for performing that operation in large 
quantities, and can consequently afford it much cheap- 
er than it can be prepared in small quantities ; be- 
sides the saving the trouble. It must be demanded of 
them by the name of putty ; and care must be taken 
that it be not sophisticated, which it seldom fails to be 
before it comes outof their hands forcommon purposes. 
The sophistication, which is generally by chalk, lime, 
or some such white earth, may be thus distinguished : 
put the putty into a crucible with some tallow or 
Other grease; and give it the heat of fusion, or what is 


sufficient to melt it, supplying the grease in fresh 
quantities as it burns away, till the calcined tin appears 
to have regained its metallic state. Suffer then the re- 
mainder of the grease to burn away ; and the chalk or 
earth, if any were mixed with it, will be found swim- 
ming on the surface of the metal ; to which, however 
the ashes of the grease mustbe supposed to have added 
some little quantity. There is, nevertheless, another 
body with which the putty or calx of tin may be adul- 
terated, that will not discover itself by this method of 
reduction of the tin ; it is white lead, which, in this 
manner of treatment, would run into fusion, and mix 
with the tin ; and could therefore not be distinguished 
from it; but it may be easily rendered perceptible by 
another manner of proceeding; which is, to take the 
putty suspected to be adulterated with it, and having 
put it into a crucible without any admixture, and in- 
verted another crucible over it as a cover to give it a 
moderate heat, carefully avoiding that the smoke or 
coal of the fire may have any access to it to change its 
colour. If there be any white lead mixed with the 
putty, it will shew itself, when removed from the fire, 
and become cold in a yellow or brown colour. If no 
such colour supervene, but the putty appear equally 
white as before it was heated, a conclusion may be 
safely made that it was not adulterated by white lead; 
or that, if sophisticated at all, it must be by some 
white earth, which may be made perceptible by the 
reduction of tin in the manner before-mentioned. 

Ultramarine (the preparation of which we have be- 
fore given) is used in enamel, where very light blues 
of a lighter tint are wanted ; and, sometimes indeed, i 
u 5 


other cases, by those who do not understand the right 
use of zaffer and smalt; but there are few instances 
where zaffer, when perfectly good, fluxed witli borax 
and a little calcined flint, or Venetian glass, to take off 
the fusible quality of the borax, will not equally well 
answer with the best ultramarine; the ultramarine re- 
quires no preparation when used in enamel painting, 
previously to it being mixed with the proper flux; and 
what relates to its general qualities, and the means of 
distinguishing its goodness or genuineness, we have, 
along with its preparation, before taught. 

Ultramarine ashes are used, where light semi-trans- 
parent blues are wanted; but they are frequently 
adulterated with precipitations of copper, which, of 
course, turn green on fluxing, that it is very necessary 
to be cautious in the use of any parcel not previously 

Zaffer is used for producing blue, green, purple, and 
black colours in enamel; it is an earth obtained by 
calcining a kind of stone, called cobalt ; and when it is 
mixed with any kind of vitreous bodies, it vitrifies, at 
the same time assuming a strong blue colour, but for 
the most part verging to the purple ; it is to be had in 
a state proper for use, of those colourmen who make it 
their particular business to supply the glass-makers 
with colours. The goodness of zaffer can scarcely be 
known but by an actual trial of it ; and, comparing 
the effect of it with that of some other known to be 
good, and used in the same proportion. 

Magnesia is an earth, which, when fluxed with any 
vitreous body, produces a broken crimson, or foul rose- 



colour. It is not to be had, prepared fit for use, ex- 
cept by more perfect levigation from those who seUs 
colours to the glass-makers. It is useful not only for 
some purpose as a red, but for the several compositions 
of black, purple, and some browns. The goodness of 
the magnesia must be determined by the same means 
as that of zaffer. 

Smalt is, as before-mentioned, zafFer vitrified with 
proper additions, which are generally fixed alkaline 
salts and sands, or calcined flints, which are some- 
times used as a blue in enamel : but being hard, it 
requires, for such purposes, to be used with a flux, 
which, increasing the body of glass in too great a 
proportion for the tinge, is apt to dilute the colour 
too much where great force is wanted ; therefore 
the use of the zafFer itself is in most cases prefer- 
able. There have nevertheless been, as was above 
observed, some parcels of smalt, or vitrified calx of 
cobalt, brought from Saxony, which are of an ex- 
treme strong body of colour and will bear any pro- 
portion of flux necessary to render them as soft as 
may be required, without weakening the colour too 
much for any purpose. Common smalt, however, 
ground very fine, and mixed with a fourth part of 
its weight -of borax, (which is much the most p6wer- 
ful and kindly flux for zafFer), will run pretty well, 
and may be used where either a full colour is not 
demanded, or where the work will admit of the co- 
lours being laid on thick. The goodness of smaft 
may be judged of by its bright and deep colour; 
and the less it inclines to the purple the better. 


In order to judge of the strength of the colour, the 
smalt should be reduced to a fine powder ; for, in a 
grosser state, every degree of fineness renders it so 
different, that a judgment cannot be easily formed 
of it. Smalt is to be had of all colourmen, and is not 
subject to any adulterations which would not be obvi- 
ous on inspection. 

Gold is used in enamel to produce a crimson, or 
ruby colour; which, by the mistaken sense of the 
Latin word purpureous, has been called purple by all 
the English and French writers. It must be previously 
reduced to the state of a precipitated powder, by dis- 
solving in aquae regia, and making a precipitation by 
means of tin,fixed alkaline salt, or some other metallic, 
or alkaline body. 

Silver is used for producing a yellow colour in 
enamel. It must be previously reduced to the state 
of a powder, which may be done either by precipita- 
tion from spirit of nitre, or by calcination with sul- 
phur. The precipitation of silver from spirit of nitre, 
may be performed by dissolving an ounce of silver in 
two or three ounces of spirit of nitre, and precipita- 
ting and edulcorating it. 

Copper is used in enamel painting, for the forming 
green, blue, and red colours, but it must be previ- 
ously either calcined, or reduced to the state of a 
powder by precipitation. 

Iron is used to produce an orange red, or foul scar" 
let colour in enamel ; as also a transparent yellow ; 
and to assist, likewise, in the formation of greens, and 
other compound colours. It is prepared many ways, 


both by corrosion and precipitation ; some of which, 
indeed, make a real difference, but most of them lead 
to the same end. 

Antimony is used for producing a yellow colour in 
enamel, as well as the white before-mentioned; and, 
indeed, it is the most useful, and most used of any 
substance whatever for that purpose. It is prepared 
only by levigation; to which its texture notwithstand- 
ing its being a semi-metal, very well suits. 

Glass of antimony is also used sometimes in enamel 
painting; being itself a fine transparent orange colour. 
But as it wants body, it has no great effect but in 

Orpiment has been also used in enamel for pro- 
ducing a yellow colour ; but it is very tender with 
regard to the fire, and requires so soft a flux, while, 
at the same time, antimony, properly managed 
will so well supply the place of it, that it is rarely 

Powdered bricks have been also used for com- 
pounding yellow colours in enamel : but as they act 
only in consequence of the oker they contain, they 
are certainly inferior to the prepared okers we have 

The most active flux amongst salts is borax; which 
indeed possesses this power in the greatest degree 
hitherto known of any simple whatever. The aext is 
lead, which vitrifies with a very moderate degree of 
heat, assimilates to glass itself, not only many kinds 
of earth, but all metals and semi-metals, except gold 
and silver in their entire state. Arsenic is the next 
powerful flux, only it requires to be fixed, by conjoin- 


ing it with some other body already vitrified, other- 
wise it sublimes and flies away before it arrives at the 
vitrefactive heat. The several kinds of salts have the 
next degree of fluxing powder ; and among them sea 
salt possesses the greatest : but they are not suffi- 
ciently strong themselves to form an enamel flux soft 
enough to be used in painting; though, as they are 
colourless, which is not the case of vitrified lead, they 
are very necessary to be compounded with lead ; 
or used in its place, assisted by borax, where ab- 
sence of every degree of colour is necessary in the 


THE effect of this kind of painting, which, has 
lately become very fashionable, though by no means a 
modern invention, is very pleasing if managed with 
judgement, particularly in fire and moonlights, where 
brilliancy of light and strength of shade are so very 

The very great expence attending the purchase of 
stained glass, and the risk of keeping it secure from 
accident, almost precludes the use of it in ornament- 
ing rooms; but transparencies form a substitute nearly 
equal and at a very small expence. 

The paper upon which you intend to paint must be 
fixed in a straining-frame, in order that you may be 
able to place it between you and the light, when you 
see occasion in the progress of your work. After trac- 


ing in your design, the colours must be laid on in the 
usual method of stained drawings. When the tints 
are got in, you must place your picture against the 
window, on a pain of glass framed for the purpose, 
and begin to strengthen the shadows with Indian-ink, 
or with colours, according as the effect requires, laying 
the colours sometimes on both sides of the paper, to 
give greater force and depth of colour. The last 
touches for giving final strength to shadows and forms, 
are to be done with ivory-black, or lamp-black, pre- 
pared with gum water, as there is no pigment so 
opaque and capable of giving strength and decision. 

When the picture is finished, and every part has got 
its depth of colour and brilliancy, being perfectly dry, 
you touch very carefully with spirits of turpentine on 
both sides, those parts which are to be the brightest, 
such as the moon and fire, and those parts requiring 
less brightness, only one side. Then lay on imme- 
diately with a pencil, a varnish made by dissolving 
one ounce of Canada balsam in an equal quantity of 
spirit of turpentine. You must be cautious with the 
varnish, as it is apt to spread. When the varnish is 
dry you tint the flame with red-lead and gamboge, 
slightly tinging the smoke next the flame : the moon 
must not be tinted with colour. 

Much depends upon the choice of the subject, and 
none is so admirably adapted to this species of effect 
as the gloomy gothic ruin, whose antique towers and 
pointed turrets finely contrast their dark battlements 
with the pale, yet brilliant moon. The effect of rays 
passing through the ruined windows, halfchoaked 
with ivy, or of a fire amongst the clustering pillars and 


broken monuments of the choir, round which are 
figures of banditti ; or others whose haggard faces 
catch the reflecting light : these afford a peculiarity of 
effect, not to be equalled in any other species of paint- 
ing. Internal views of cathedrals also, where windows 
of stained glass are introduced, have a beautiful effect. 
The great point to be attained, is a happy coinci- 
dence between the subject and the effect produced. 
The fine light should not be too near the moon, as its 
glare would tend to injure her pale silver light; those 
parts which are not interesting should be kept in an 
undistinguishable gloom, and where the principal light 
is, they should be marked with precision. Groups of 
figures should be well contrasted; those in shadow 
crossing those that are in light, by which means the 
opposition of light against shade is effected. 


PERSPECTIVE is the foundation of all the polite or 
liberal arts thathave their basis in drawing; though co- 
louring, taken abstractedly, does not come within its 
rules, yet the painter as well as the sculptor and archi- 
tect cannot but derive essential advantages from a 
knowledge of perspective ; it is indeed difficult to con- 
ceive how a person who has not either been instructed 
in, or been gifted by nature with some idea of the effects 
produced by locality and distance, can form any thing 


like a correct opinion of the merits of those imitations 
of nature which come under the heads of portrait, land- 
scape, figure or architectural drawing. 

Perspective is, in brief, the art of representing, upon 
a plane surface, the appearance of objects, however 
diversified, similar to lhat they assume upon a glass- 
pane interposed between them, and the eye at a given 
distance. The representation of a solid object on a 
plane surface can show the original in no other point 
of view but that from which it is at the time beheld by 
the draughtsman ; the least change in any of the parts 
requires a change in the whole; unless infancy draw- 
ings where a fac-simile is not required. Nor can any 
deviation from the several lines, which will be hereafter 
explained, and on which the truth and correctness of 
reputation depend, be allowed without changing the 
bearings, direction, and tendency of all the perspec- 
tive lines which constitute the basis of that faithful and 
converging series which unite all the component parts 
in the most pleasing and harmonious concinnity. 

By perspective we are taught to delineate objects on 
a plane, upon geometrical principles, and in exact ratio 
with their several magnitudes, governed by their dis- 
tance. But it is not in the power of art to represent 
any single figure, (exact as it appears in nature) on a 
plane, except it be a circle ; and then the point of sight 
or direct position of the eye, must be peifectly centrical. 
The reasons for this are obvious : every object which 
recedes from the eye, (such as a row of houses in an 
oblique direction), inevitably requires that its more 
remote parts should be represented as being of less mag- 
nitude, than those more in front, that is, nearer to the 


spectator. Now, although it is considered an axiom in 
perspective that all objects standingparallel to the base 
line, or bottom of the picture, should be represented as 
preserving in every instance the real proportion of the 
scale from which their parts are taken ; yet when we 
analyze the object, according to the various angles those 
several parts make with the eye, we shall find that even 
such full pointing figures require their more remote parts 
to be reduced in proportion as they become more distant 
from the centre, or point of sight. But it will be ob- 
vious, that where the object is very remote, there must 
be the less necessity for such scrupulous attention ; 
therefore when we draw an extensive mansion,full front- 
ing, at a great distance, we describe all the horizontal 
lines in the building, by horizontal lines in the draw- 
ing ; so long as they come under any angle of 60 de- 
grees ; which is the natural range of sight, and beyond 
which no picture should ever extend ; when beyond 
that angle, we cannot take the whole picture at one 
view ; but must treat it as a panorama, and view the 
several parts abstractedly. When a building is so 
near as to occasion turning our heads round for the 
purpose of seeing its several parts, they have the 
same effect, and compel us to have recourse to various 
vanishing points in which we seek the termination 
of those lines that converge, and in fact divide the build- 
ing, though full fronted and uniform, in several parts ; 
each of which seem to assume a distinct character, arid 
to demand separate consideration. This will be more 
fully understood when we treat of the general rules 
which govern perspective. The reader must recollect 
that, as it would be impossible to represent more than 


one view of the object, in one plane, or picture, so there 
can be but one point of sight ; that is but one particu- 
lar spot, where the eye of the spectator is supposed to 
be fixed ; from which, as from a very minute point, all 
the figures represented must appear as under one ge- 
neral system. The same attention must of course be 
paid to shadows; for we cannot suppose the dark side 
of a house to result from any thing but the light being 
in such a quarter as does not allow it to strike on that 
side; consequently we attribute the bright side of the 
same object to its being illuminated by rays which act 
peremptorily upon it. Speaking of common effects, we 
consider the light to be solitary; such as the Sun or 
the Moon, or one candle, &c. hence we perceive both 
the necessity , and the reason, for exhibiting all objects 
as bright which are within the range of, or show them- 
selves openly to, the light, and all parts to which its 
rays cannot reach direct, as. being in the shade, and 
more or less dark, according as they may be more 
retired and confined. When two lights are found in 
the same picture, such as two candles on a table, 
there will be to every object under their mutual in- 
fluence a half shade, and a whole shade ; the former 
called the penumbra, shewing that extent which re- 
sults from one light being obscured, or cut off; and 
die latter or the umbra, shewing those parts which are 
not acted upon by either of the lights. This will be 
obvious to any person who may place two candles 
behind him, as he sits with his back to a table ; they 
being about two feet asunder. He will then see, on 
the wall, the influence of each candle; and his sha- 
dow will increase with the remoteness of the plane,or 
wall on which it is represented, 


The following definitions of the principal features in 
the science and application of perspective will prove 
useful to the student, viz. projection delineates objects 
in piano, by means of right lines called rays, supposed 
to be drawn from every angle of the object, to particular 
points. When the objects are angular, these rays, 
necessarily form pyramids, having the plane or super- 
fices, whence they proceed from their basis ; but when 
drawn from, or to, circular objects, they form a cone. 

Ichnography,or ichnographic projection^ described 
by right lines parallel among themselves, and perpen- 
dicular to the horizon,from every angle of every object 
on plane parallel to the horizon. The points where 
the perpendicular lines or rays cut that plane being 
joined by right lines. The figure presented on the 
horizontal plane is likewise called the plan, or seat of 
that object on the. ground plane. The points are the 
scites, or seats, of the angles of the object. The lines 
are the seats of the sides. By this we are to under- 
stand how the basis of figures represented as super- 
structures stand, or are supported; and we are further 
enabled to judge of, indeed to measure, their several 
parts, and their areas. 

Orthography represents the vertical position and 
appearance of an object; hence orthographic projection 
is called the elevation. When we thus see the front of 
a house, we give it that term ; but when the side is 
displayed we call it the profile. If we suppose a house 
or other object to be divided by a plane passing per- 
pendicularly through it in a line at right angles with 
the point, we call it the lateral section ; but if the plane 


pass in a direction parallel with the front, it is termed 
a longitudinal section. If the plane passes in neither 
of the former directions (not however deviating from 
the vertical) it is said to be an oblique section. 

These give us the modes of laying down plans, of 
shewing the parts, and the manner in which the inte- 
riors of edifices are arranged; consequently are indis- 
pensible to the architect, surveyor, and indeed should 
be understood by every person in any way connected 
with building, or designing. Nor should the following 
be neglected, viz. scenography, which shews us how to 
direct the visual rays to every point, or p \rt, of a 
picture; and stereography, which enables us to repre- 
sent solids on a plane, from geometrical projection ; 
whence their several dimensions, viz. length, breadth, 
and thickness may all be represented, and be correctly 
understood at sight. We suppose our readers to have 
some knowledge of geometry before they commence 
upon this, or any other of the abstract sciences which 
are founded thereon. 

An original object, is that which becomes the subject 
of the picture, and which is the parent of the design. 
Any plane figure may become an object, as may any of 
its parts, as a broken pillar, the ruins of a house, the 
stump or the branch of a tree ; but we generally speak 
of objects as relating to entire figures represented as 
solids, or to as much rural or other scenery as may be 
embraced under an angle of sixty degrees formed by 
two lines meeting at the eye. This will explain why 
we are enabled to represent so great anumber ofdistant 
objects, while the front, or fore-ground, will contain, 


comparatively, but a very few : it being obvious that 
as the lines forming the angles become more distant, 
the more may be included between them. 

Original planes, or lines, are the surfaces of the 
objects to be drawn ; or they are any lines of those 
surfaces : or it means the surfaces on which these ob- 
jects stand. 

Perspective plane is the picture itself, which is sup- 
posed to be a transparent plane, through which you we 
view the objects represented thereon. 

Vanishing planes are those points which are marked 
upon the, picture, by supposing lines to be drawn from 
the spectator's eye parallel to any original lines, and 
produced until they touch the picture. 

Ground plane is the surface of the earth, or plane 
of the horizon, on which the picture is supposed to 

The ground line is that formed by the intersection 
of the picture in the ground plane. 

The horizontal line is the vanishing point of the 
horizontal plane, and is produced in the same manner 
as any other vanishing line, viz. by passing a plane 
through the eye parallel to the horizontal plane. 

The point of sight is the fixed point from which the 
spectator views the perspective plane. 

Vanishing points are the points which are marked 
down in the picture, by supposing lines to be drawn 
from the spectator's eye, parallel to any original lines, 
and produced until they touch the picture. 

The centre of a picture is that point on the perspec- 
tive plane where a line, drawn from the eye perpendi- 
cular to the picture, would cut it ; consequently it is 


that part of the picture which is nearest to the eye of 
the spectator. 

The distance of the picture is the distance from the 
eye to the centre of the picture., If what has been 
already said and repeated, regarding the angle of 60 
degrees, is understood, the spectator will never bring 
the picture so near to himself as to occasion the eyes 
to expand, indeed to strain, so as to embrace more 
than that angle. 

The distance of a vanishing point is the distance 
from the eye of the spectator to that point where the 
converging lines meet, and after gradually diminishing 
all the objects which come within their direction and 
proportion, are reduced so as in fact to terminate in 
nothing. All parallel lines have the same vanishing 
point ; that is to say, all such as are in a building, 
parrallel to each other, when not represented exactly 
opposite to, and parrallel with the eye, will appear to 
converge towards some remote point, i. e. their vanish- 
ing point Circles, when retiring in such manner, are 
represented by ellipses, proportioned to their distances: 
their dimensions in perspective are ascertained by 
enclosing them, or the nearest of them, where a regu- 
lar succession is to be pourtrayed within a square, 
whicj} being divided into any number of equal parts or 
cheques, will show all the proportions of those more 
remote. We trust it scarcely requires to be repeated 
that the further any object is from the eye or fore- 
ground of a picture, the less it will appear in nature, 
and the more it must be reduced in exhibiting its per- 


A bird's-eye view is supposed to be taken from some 
elevated spot which commands such a prospect as 
nearly resembles the plane or ichnography of the places 
seen. Thus the view from a ligh tower, or from a 
mountain, whence the altitudes of the several objects 
on the plane below appear much diminished, gives 
nearly the same representation as is offered to a bird 
flying over them ; whence the term. Some idea may 
be formed of this by standing on any height, and ob- 
serving how low those objects which are near thereto, 
will appear when compared with those more distant, 
taking, however, the perspective diminution of the 
latter into consideration. 


1. To draw a square pavement in perspective. <See 
fig. I. and II. 

Suppose your piece of pavement to consist of sixty- 
four pieces of marble, each a foot square. Your first 
business is to draw an ichnographical plan or ground 
plot of it, which is thus performed. Having made an 
exact square of the size you intend your plan, divide 
the base and horizon into eight equal parts, and from 
every division in the base to its opposite point in the 
horizon, rule perpendicular lines ; then divide the 
sides into the same number, ruling parallel lines across 
from point to point ; so will your pavement be divided 
into sixty-four square feet; because the eight feet 
in length, multiplied by the same in breadth, give 
the nnmber of square feet, or pieces of marble con- 


tained in the whole : then rule diagonals from corner 
to corner; and thus will your ground plot appear as 
in fig. I. 

Now, to lay this in perspective, draw another square 
to your intended size, and divide the base line A B 
into eight equal parts, as before ; then your point of 
sight C in the middle of the horizon D E, and from the 
same point rule lines to every division in the base A B ; 
after which, rule diagonal lines from D to B, and from 
E to A, answerable to those in the ground plot, and 
your square will be reduced to the triangle ABC; 
then from point F, where the diagonal D B intersects 
the line A C, to the opposite intersection G, where 
the diagonal E A crosses the line C B, rule a parallel 
line, which is the abridgment of the square. 

Then through the points where the diagonals cross 
the rest of the lines, which go from the base to the 
point of sight, rule parallel lines, and your square 
pavement will be laid in perspective, as in fig. II. 

2. To find the height and proportion of any objects, at 
they appear above the horizon, on a supposed plane. 
See Jig. 111. 

First, rule your horizontal line F O, and fix your 
point of sight, as at M ; then mark the place of your 
nearest pillar, by making a dot for the base or bottom, 
as at A: and another for the summit or top, as at B; 
rule a line from A to the point of sight M, and another 
from B to M, and these two lines will give the height 
of any number of pillars. As for example; suppose 
you would have a pillar at C, fix your dot for the base, 


and rule from thence a parallel line to meet the 
diagonal A M at D ; then rule the perpendicular D E 
to the diagonal B M; which perpendicular is the 
height of your figure required at C. Or, if you would 
place pillars at F and I, observe the same method 
ruling the parrallels F G and I K, and the perpendicu- 
lars G H and K L will give their heights at the dis- 
tance required. 

To find the diameter or thickness of pillars at any 
particular distances, you are also to be guided by that 
nearest the base. For instance ; suppose your nearest 
pillar A B to be ten feet high and one foot in diameter ; 
divide it from top to bottom in ten equal parts, and 
set off one of them upon the base of the pillar ; then 
rule a line from the point of sight M, to the diameter 
P, and you will have the thickness of all your pillars 
on their respective parallels or bases. 

3. The same rule exemplified in objects below the horizon. 
See jig. IV. 

If you would know the heights of a number of 
figures below the horizon, rule your horizontal line 
Q R, and fix your point of sight, as at P ; then place 
your nearest figure or mark the dots for the head and 
feet by the points A and B, which answers the same 
purpose; and rule from these dots to the point of 
sight the lines A P and B Q ; and if you would find the 
height of a figure to be drawn at c, rule from thence 
the parallel c d to the diagonal B P, and the perpen- 
dicular d e will give the height required. The same 
directions will shew the height of a figure at any 


other distance you have a mind to place it, as at f, i, 
and m, by ruling the parallels f g, i k, and m n; and 
from each of these their respective perpendiculars gh, 
k 1, and n o; which perpendiculars will show the 
heights of the figures at f, i, and m. 

4. To draw a direct view. See Jig. V. 

To illustrate this example, suppose you were to draw 
the inside of a church, as represented in this figure . 
first take your station at the point A, in the centre of 
the base line B C, from which you have a front view of 
the whole body of the church, with all the pillars, &c. 
on each side ; then fix your horizon at any height you 
think proper as at DE; bisect it by the perpendicular 
E A ; and where these two lines intersect, is the point 
of sight F. Next divide your base line into any given 
number of feet, and the visual lines, rule from these 
divisions to the point of sight, will reduce all your ob- 
jects to their just proportion, by setting off their height 
upon a perpendicular raised at their respective distan- 
ces. The base, in the example here given, is divided 
into twelve equal parts of five feet each; from which 
(supposing your front column to be thirty-five feet 
high) take seven divisions from the base line of your 
drawing, and set them off upon the perpendicular G H ; 
then (supposing this column to be five feet thick at the 
base) set off one of those divisions upon the parallel 
I K, which is the breadth required. So that, by pro- 
portioning this scale to any distance by the foregoing 
directions, you may not only find the dimensions of all 
your columns, but also of every distinct part of them, 


as well as of all the doors, windows, and other objects 
that occur. For nstance ; having found the height 
and breadth of your nearest column G, draw from the 
top and bottom of the said column to the point of sight 
the lines H F and K F ; after which, rule the line I F 
from the base of the column to the point of sight, and 
you have the height and breadth of all the rest of the 
columns, as has been already shown in fig. III. 

By ruling lines from the points a, b, c, d, &c. 
to the point of sight, you will see that all the summits 
and bases of your columns, doors, windows &c. must 
tend immediately to that point ; and by lines drawn 
from the points 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. on each side, to the 
correspondent points on the opposite side, may be seen 
all the parts of your building lying upon the same pa- 

5. To draw an oblique view. See Jig. VI. 

First, draw your horizontal line AB ; then, if your 
favourite object be o/i the right hand, as at C, place 
yourself on the left hand upon the base line, as at D ; 
then from that station erect a perpendicular D E, 
which will pass through the horizon at the point of 
sight F ; to which rule the diagonals G F and H F, 
which will shew the roof and base of your principal 
building C ; and will also, as before directed, serve as 
a standard for all the rest. 

Observe also, either in direct or oblique views, whe- 
ther the prospect before you makes a curve ; for if it 
does, you must be careful to make the same curve in 
your drawing. 


6. To draw a perspective view, wherein are accidental 
points. See jig. VII. 

Rule your horizontal line a h, and on one part of it 
fix your point of sight, as at c ; from which rule the di- 
agonals c d and c e on the one side, and c f and c q on 
the other ; which will shew the roofs and bases of all 
the houses in the street directly facing you, (supposing 
yourself placed at A in the centre of the base line). 
Then fix your accidental points g and h upon the hori- 
zontal line, and rule from them to the angles i k and 
1 m (where the streets on each side take a different di- 
rection, towards the accidental points g and h), and the 
lines g i and g k give the roofs and bases of all the 
buildings on one side, as 1 h and m h do on the other. 

Accidental points seldom intervene where the dis- 
tance is small, as in noblemen's seats, groves, canals, 
&c. which may be drawn by the strict rules of perspec- 
tive ; but where the prospect is extensive and varied, 
including mountains, bridges, castles, rivers, preci- 
pices, woods, cities, &c. it will require such an infi- 
nite number of accidental points, that it will be better 
to do them as nature shall dictate, and your ripened 
judgment approve. 

What has been said relates chiefly to mathematical 
perspective, and forms the basis of architectural de- 
sign, and governs (though rather occultly) every kind 
of landscape painting ; with regard to the perspective 
of living objects, and of varied nature, that can only be 
acquired by attention to models, and to the real figures. 


PERSPECTIVE, aerial, is the art of giving a due di- 
minution or degradation to the strength of the light, 
shade, and colours of objects, according to their differ- 
ent distances, the quantity of light which falls on 
them, and the medium through which they are seen. 

As the eye does not judge of the distance of objects 
entirely by their apparent size, but also by their 
strength of colours, and distinction of parts ; so it is 
not sufficient to give an object its due apparent bulk 
according to the rules of stereography, unless at the 
same time it be expressed with that proper faintnesa 
and degradation of colour which the distance requires. 
Thus if the figure of a man, at a distance, were painted 
of a proper magnitude for the place, but with too 
great a distinction of parts, or too strong colours, it 
would appear to stand forward, and seem proportion- 
ally less, so as to represent a dwarf situated nearer the 
eye, and out of the plane on which the painter intend- 
ed it should stand. 

By the original colour of an object is meant that 
colour which it exhibits to the eye when duly exposed 
to it in a full open uniform light, at such a moderate 
distance as to be clearly and distinctly seen. This co- 
lour receives an alteration from many causes, the 
principal of which are the following. 

From the objects being removed to a greater dis- 
tance from the eye, whereby [the rays of light which it 
reflects are less vivid, and the colour becomes more 
diluted and tinged, in some measure, by the faint 
blueish cast, or with the dimness or haziness of the 
body of air through which the rays pass. 

From the greater or less degree of light with which 


the object is enlightened ; the same original colour 
having a different appearance in the shades, from 
what it has in the light, although at an equal distance 
from the eye^, and so in proportion to the strength of 
the light or shade. 

From the colour of the light itself which falls upon 
it, whether it be from the reflection of coloured light 
from any adjacent object, or by its passage through a 
coloured medium, which will exhibit a colour com- 
pounded of the original colour of the object, and the 
other accidental colours which the light brings with it. 
From the position of the surface of the object, or of 
its several parts with respect to the eye; such parts of 
it appearing more lively and distinct than those which 
are seen obliquely. 

From the closeness or openness of the place where 
the object is situated; the light being much more 
variously directed and reflected within a room, than* 
in the open air. 

Some original colours naturally reflect light in a 
greater proportion than others, though equally ex- 
posed to the same degrees of it; whereby their degra- 
dation at several distances will be different from that 
of other colours which reflect less light. 

From these several causes it happens that the co- 
lours of objects are seldom seen pure and unmixed, 
but generally arrive at the eye broken and softened by 
each other; and therefore, in painting, where the na- 
tural appearances of objects are to be described, all 
hard or sharp colouring should be carefully avoided. 

A painter, therefore, who would succeed in aerial 
perspective, ought carefully to study the effects which 


distance, or the different degrees or colours of light, 
have on each particular original colour, to know how 
its appearance or strength is changed into the several 
circumstances above-mentioned, and represent it ac- 
cordingly ; so, that in a picture of various coloured 
objects, he may be able to give each original colour 
its own proper diminution or degradation according 
to its place. 

Now, as all objects in a picture are proportioned to 
those placed in the front ; so in aerial perspective the 
strength of light, and the brightness of the colours of 
objects close to the picture, must serve as a standard; 
with respect to which, all the same colours, at differ- 
ent distances, must have a proportional degradation 
in like circumstances. 

In order, therefore, to give any colour its proper 
diminution in proportion to its distance, it ought to be 
known what the appearance of that colour would be, 
were it close to the picture, regard being had to that 
degree of light which is chosen as the principal light 
of the picture. For if any colour should be made too 
bright for another, or for the general colours employ- 
ed in the rest of the picture, it will appear too glaring, 
seem to start out of its place, and throw a flatness and 
damp upon the rest of the work ; or, as the painters 
express it, the brightness of that colour will kill the 



ETCHING is a manner of engraving on copper, in 
which the lines or strokes, instead of being cut with a 
tool or graver, are corroded in with aqua fortis. 

It is a much later invention than the art of engrav- 
ing by cutting the lines on the copper, and has many 
advantages over it for some purposes, though it cannot 
supersede the use of the graver entirely, as there are 
many things that cannot be etched so well as they can 
be graved. 

In almost all the engravings on copper that arc 
executed in the stroke manner, etching and graving 
are combined, the plate being generally begun by 
etching, and finished with the graver. Landscapes, 
architecture, and machinery, are the subjects that 
receive most assistance from the art of etching ; for it 
is not so applicable to portraits and historical designs. 

We shall first describe the various instruments and 
materials used in the art. 

Copper-plates may be had ready prepared at the 
coppersmiths, by those who reside in large towns ; 
but when this cannot be had, procure a piece of pretty 
thick sheet-copper from a brazier, rather larger than 
your drawing, and let him planish it well ; then take 
a piece of pumicestone, and with water rub it all one 
way, till the surface is as smooth and level as it can be 
o 5 


made by that means : a piece of charcoal is next used 
with water, for polishing it still farther, and removing 
the deep scratches made by the pumicestone ; and it is 
then finished with a piece of charcoal of a finer grain, 
with a little oil. 

Etching-points or needles are pointed instruments of 
steel, about an inch long, fixed in handles of hard 
wood, about six inches in length, and of the size of a 
goose-quill. They should be well tempered, and very 
accurately fixed in the centre of the handle. They 
must be brought to an accurately conical point, by 
rubbing upon an oil-stone, with which it is also very 
necessary to be provided. Several of these points 
will be necessary. 

A parallel-ruler is necessary for drawing parallel 
straight lines with. This is best when faced with 
brass, as it is not then so liable to be bruised by acci- 

Compasses are useful for striking circles and mea- 
suring distances. 

Aqua-fortis, or what is better, spirits of nitre (nitrous 
acid), is used for corroding the copper, or biting-'m, as 
it is called. This must be kept in a bottle with a glass 
stopple, for its fumes destroy corks. A stopple made 
of wax will serve as a substitute, or a cork well cover- 
ed with wax. 

Bordering-wax, for surrounding the margin of the 
copper-plate when the aqua fortis is pouring on. This 
may be bought ready prepared, but it may be made as 

Take one-third of bees-wax to two- thirds of pitch; 
melt them in an iron ladle, and pour them, when 


melted, into water lukewarm ; then mould it with your 
hand till it is thoroughly incorporated, and all the 
water squeezed out. Form it into rolls of convenient 

Turpentine-tarnish is used for covering the copper- 
plate with, in any part where you do not wish the 
aqua fortis to bite. This may be diluted to a proper 
consistence with turpentine, and mixed with lamp- 
black, that it may be seen better when laid upon the 

Etching-ground is used for covering the plate all 
over with, previous to drawing the lines on it with the 
needles. It is prepared in the following manner. 

Take of virgin-wax and asphaltum, each twenty 
ounces, of black-pitch and Burgundy-pitch, each half 
an ounce ; melt the wax and pitch in a new earthen- 
ware glazed pipkin, and add to them, by degrees, the 
aspaltum, finely powdered. Let the whole boil till 
such time as that, by taking a drop upon a plate, it will 
break when it is cold, on bending it double two or 
three times between the fingers. The varnish being 
then enough boiled, must be taken off from the fire, 
and letting it cool a little, must be poured into warm 
water, that it may work the more easily with the 
hands, so as to form into balls for use. 

It must be observed, first, that the fire be not too 
violent, for fear of burning the ingredients ; a slight 
simmering will be sufficient ; secondly, that while the 
asphaltum is putting in, and even after it is mixed with 
them, the ingredients should be stirred continually 
with a spatula ; and thirdly, that the water into which 
this composition is thrown, should be nearly of the 


same degree of warmth with it, to prevent a kind of 

cracking, which happens when the water is too cold. 

The varnish ought always to be harder in summer 
than winter, and it will become so if it be suffered 
to boil longer, or if a greater proportion of the asphal- 
tum be used. The experiment above mentioned, of 
the drop suffered to cool, will determine the degree of 
hardness or softness that may be suitable to the sea- 
son when it is used. 

To lay the ground for etching, proceed in the folio v- 
ing manner. Having cleaned the copper-plate with 
some fine whiting and a linen rag, to free it from all 
grease, fix a hand'vice to some part of it where no 
work is intended to be, to serve as a handle for manag- 
ing it by when warm. Roll up some coarse brown 
paper, and light one end ; then hold the back of the 
plate over the burning paper, moving it about until 
every part of it is equally heated, so as to melt the 
etching-ground, which should be wrapped up in a bit 
of taffety, to prevent any dirt that may happen to be 
among it, from mixing with what is melted upon the 
plate. If the plate be large, it will be best to heat it 
over a chafing-dish with some clear coals. It must be 
heated just sufficient to melt the ground, but not so 
much as to burn it. When a sufficient quantity of 
the etching-ground has been rubbed upon the plate, 
must be dabbed, or beat gently, while the plate is hot, 
with a small dabber made of cotton wrapped up in a 
piece of taffety, by which operation the ground is dis- 
tributed more equally over the plate than it could be 
by any other means. 

When the plate is thus uniformly and thinly covered 


with I he varnish, it must be blackened by smoaking it 
with a wax-taper. For this purpose twist together 
three or four pieces of wax-taper, to make a large flame, 
and while the plate is still warm, hold it with the 
varnished side downwards, and move the smoky part 
of the lighted taper over its surface, till it is made 
almost quite black; taking care not to let the wick 
touch the varnish, and that the latter get no smear or 
stain. In laying the etching-ground, great care must 
be taken that no particles of dust or dirt of any kind 
settle upon it, as that would be found very troublesome 
in etching; the room therefore in which it is laid 
should be as still as possible, and free from dust. 

The ground being now laid, and suffered to cool, the 
next operation is to transfer the design to the plate. 

For this purpose a tracing on oiled paper must now 
be made, from the design to be etched, with pen and 
ink, having a very small quantity of ox's gall mixed 
with it, to make the oiled paper take it; also a piece of 
thin paper, of the same size, must be rubbed over with 
red chalk, powdered, by means of some cotton. Then 
laying the red chalked paper, with its chalked side 
next the ground, on the plate, put the tracing over it, 
and fasten them both together, and to the plate, by a 
little bit of the bordering-wax. 

When all this is prepared, take a blunt etchingneedle, 
and go gently all over the lines in the tracing ; by 
which means the chalked paper will be pressed against 
the ground, and the lines of the tracing will be trans- 
ferred to the ground ; on taking off the paper, they 
will be seen distinctly. 


The plate is now prepared for drawing through the 
lines which have been marked upon the ground. For 
this, the etching-points or needles are employed, lean- 
ing hard or lightly, according to the degree of strength 
required in the lines. Points of different sizes and 
forms are also used for making lines of different thick- 
ness, though commonly this is effected by the biting- 
in with the aqua fortis. 

A margin or border of wax must now be formed all 
round the plate, to hold the aqua fortis when it is pour- 
ed on. To do this, the bordering-wax already descri- 
bed must be put into lukewarm water to soften it, and 
render it easily worked by the hand. When sufficient- 
ly pliable, it must be drawn out in long rolls, and put 
round the edges of the plate, pressing it down firm, 
and forming it with the fingers into a neat wall or 
margin. A spout must be formed in orue corner, to 
pour off the aqua fortis by afterwards. 

The nitrous acid (spirits of nitre) is now to be diluted 
with four or five times as much water, or more (accor- 
ding as you wish the plate to be bit quick or slow,) and 
poured upon the plate. In a few minutes you will 
see minute bubbles of air filling all the lines that have 
been drawn on the copper, which are to be removed by 
a feather; and the plate must be now and then swept, 
as it is called, or kept free from air-bubbles. By the 
more or less rapid production of these bubbles, you 
judge of the rapidity with which the acid acts upon the 
copper. The biting'in of the plate, is the most uncer- 
tain part of the process, and nothing but very great ex- 
perience can enable any one to tell when the plate is bit 
enough, as you cannot easily see the thickness and 
depth of the line till the ground is taken off. 


When you judge, from the time the acid has been 
on, and the rapidity of the biting, that those lines which 
you wish to be the faintest are as deep as you wish, 
you pour off the aqua fortis by the spout, wash the 
plate with water, and dry it, by blowing with bellows, 
or by the fire, taking care not to melt the ground. 

Those lines that are not intended to be bit any deep- 
er, must now be stopped up with turpentine varnish 
mixed with a little lamp-black, and laid on with a ca- 
mel's- hair pencil; and when this is thoroughly dry, 
the aqua fortis may be poured on again, to bite the 
other lines that are required to be deeper. 

This process of stopping-out and biting-in, is to be 
repeated as often as there are to be lines of different 
degrees of thickness, taking care not to make any 
mistake in .stopping-out wrong lines. 

It is also&ecessary to be particularly careful to stop- 
out with the varnish, those parts from which the 
ground may happen to have come off by the action of 
the acid, otherwise you will have parts bit that were 
not intended, which is called foul-biting. 

When the biting-in is quite finished, the next ope- 
ration is to remove the bordering-wax and the ground, 
in order that you may see what success you have had ; 
for till then, this cannot be known exactly. 

To take off the bordering wax, the plate must be 
heated by a piece of lighted paper, which softens the 
wax in contact with the plate, and occasions it to 
come off quite clean. 

Oil of turpentine is now poured upon the ground, 
and the plate is rubbed with a bit of linen rag, which 
removes all the ground. Lastly, it is cleaned off with 


The success of the etching may now be known, but 
it is necessary to get an impression taken upon paper 
by a copper-plate printer. This impression is called 
a proof. 

If any parts are not bit so deep as were intended, the 
process may be repeated, provided the lines are not 
too faintly bit to admit of it. This second biting-in 
the same lines, is called re-biting, and is done as fol- 
lows : Melt a little of the etching ground on a spare 
piece of copper, and dab it a little to get some on the 
dabber, then having cleaned out with whiting the lines 
that are toberebit, heat the plate gently, and dab it very 
lightly with the dabber. By this, the parts between the 
lines will be covered with the ground,but the lines them- 
selves will not be filled up, an 1 consequently will be sx- 
posed to the action of the aqua fortis. This is a very de- 
licate process, and must be performed with great care. 
The rest of the plate must now be varnished over, the 
bordering wax put on again, and the biting repeated 
in the same manner as at first. 

If any part should be bittoo deep, it is more difficult 
to recover it, or make it fainter; this is generally done 
by burnishing the part down, or rubbing it with a 
piece of charcoal. This will make the lines shallow- 
er, and cause them not to print so black. 

Should any small parts of the lines have missed al- 
together in the biting, they may be cut with the gra- 
ver; which is also sometimes employed to cross the 
lines of the etching, and thus to work up a mbre 
finished effect. 

Dry-pointing, as it is called, is another method em- 
ployed for softening the harsh effects usually apparent 
in an etching. This is done by cutting with the etch- 


ing-point upon the copper without any ground or var- 
nish. This does not make a very deep line, and is used 
for covering the light, where very delicate tints and soft 
shadows are wanting. By varying these processes of 
etching, graving, and dry-pointing, as is thought neces- 
sary, the plate is worked up to the full effect intended; 
and it is then sent to the writing engraver, to grave 
whatever letters may be required to be put upon it. 


THIS art, which is of late date, is recommended by 
the amazing ease with which it is executed, especially 
by those who understand drawing. 

Mezzotinto prints are those which have no patching, 
or strokes of the graver, but whose lights and shades 
are blended together, and appear like a drawing in In- 
dian-ink. They are different from aqua tinta ; but as 
both resemble Indian-ink, the difference is not easily 
described : Mezzotinto is applied to portraits and his- 
torical subjects ; and aqua tinta is used only for land- 
scape and architecture. 

The tools necessary for mezzotinto scraping are the 
grounding-tool, burnishers and scrapers. 

To, lay the mezzotinto ground, lay your plate, with a 
piece of flannel under it, upon your table, hold the 
grounding-tool in your hand perpendicularly; lean 
upon it moderately hard, continually rocking your hand 
in a right line from end to end, till you have wholly 
covered the plate in one direction : next cross the 


strokes from side to side, after wards from corner tocor- 
ner, working the tool each time all over the plate, in 
every direction, almost like the points of a compass ; 
taking all possible care not to let the tool cut (in one 
direction) twice in a place. This done, the plate will 
be full, or, in other words, all over rough alike, and 
would, if it were printed, appear completely black. 

Having laid the ground, take the scrapings of black 
chalk, and with a piece of rag rub it over the plate ; 
or you may smoke it with candles, as before directed, 
for etching. 

Now take your drawing, and having rubbed the b ack 
with red-chalk dust, mixed with flake white, proceed 
to trace it on the plate. 

To form the lights and shadows, take a blunt needle, 
and mark out the outlines only, then with a scraper 
scrape off the lights in every part of the plate, as clean 
and smooth as possible in proportion to the strength of 
the lights in your drawing, taking care not to hurt 
your outlines. 

The use of the burnisher is to soften or rub down 

the extreme light parts after the scraper is done with; 

such as the tip of the nose, forehead, linen, &c. which 

( might otherwise, when proved, appear rather misty 

than clear. 

Another method used by mezzotinto scrapers, is, to 
etch the outlines of the original, as also the folds in 
drapery, making the breadth of the shadows by dots, 
which having bit to a proper depth with aqua fortis, 
they take off the ground used in etching, and having 
laid the mezzotinto ground, proceed to scrape as above. 
When your plate is ready for taking a proof or im- 


presslon, send it to the copper-plate printer, and get it 
proved. When the proof is dry, touch it with white 
chalk where it should be lighter, and with black chalk 
where it should be darker; and when the print is rer 
touched, proceed as before, for the lights ; and for the 
shades use a small grounding-tool, as much as you 
judge necessary to bring it to a proper colour; and 
when you have done as much as you think expedient, 
prove it again ; and so proceed to prove .and touch 
till it is entirely to your mind. 


ENGRAVING is the making correspondent to some 
delineated figure or design, such concave lines on a 
smooth surface of copper, either by cuttingor corrosion, 
as render it capable, when charged properly with any 
coloured fluid, of imparting by compression an exact 
representation of the design to paper or parchment. 

The principal instrument used in engraving with 
the tool are, gravers, scrapers, a burnisher, an oil- 
stone, and a cushion for bearing the plates. 

Gravers are made in several forms with respect to 
the points, some being square, others lozenge; the 
square graver for cutting broad and deep, and the 
lozenge for more delicate and fine strokes and hatches. 
La Bosse recommends as the most generally useful, 
such as are of a form betwixt the square and lozenge ; 
and he advises, that they should be of a good length, 


small towards the point, but stronger upwards, that 
they may have strength enough to bear any stress 
there may be occasion to lay upon them ; for if they 
be too small and mounted high, they will bend, which 
frequently causes their breaking, especially if they be 
not employed for very small subjects. 

The burnisher is used to assist in the engraving on 
some occasions, as well as to polish the plates. It is 
seven inches in length, and made of fine steel, well po- 
lished. The burnisher is formed at one end, and a 
scraper on the other, each about an inch and a half 
long from the point; betwixt them, about four inches 
of the instrument is made round, and serves as a han- 
dle, and is thicker in the middle than at the necks, 
where the burnisher and scraper begin, which necks 
are only one quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
principal applipation of it in engraving, besides its use 
in polishing the plates, is to take out any scratches 
or accidental defacings that may happen to the plates 
during the engraving ; or to lessen the effects of any 
parts that may be too strongly marked in the work, 
and require to be taken down. 

A cushion, as it is called, is likewise generally used 
for supporting the plate in such a manner, that it may 
be turned every way with ease. It is a bag of leather 
filled with sand, which should be of the size that will 
best suit the plates it is intended to bear. They are 
round, and about nine inches over, and three inches 
in thickness. 

The cushion, made as above directed, being laid on 
the table, the plate mustbe put upon it ; and the graver 
being held in the hand in a proper manner, the point 


must be applied to the plate, and moved in the proper 
direction for producing the figures of the lines intended ; 
observing, in forming strait lines, to hold the plate 
steady on the cushion, and, where they are to be finer, 
to press more lightly, using greater force where they 
are to be broader and deeper. In making circular and 
other curve lines,hold your hand and grave steadily; and 
as you work, turn your plate upon the cushion against 
your graver; otherwise it will be impossible for you to 
make any circular or curved line, with that neatness 
and command of hand you by this means may. After 
part of the work is engraved, it is necessary to scrape 
it with the scraper or graver, passed in the most level 
direction over the plate to take off the roughness 
formed by the cutting of the graver; but great care must 
be taken not to incline the edge'of the scraper or tool 
used, in such a manner that it may take the least hold 
of the copper,as it would otherwise produce false strokes 
or scratches in the engraving; and that the engraved 
work may be rendered more visible, it may be after- 
wards rubbed over with a roll of felt dipped in oil. In 
using the graver, it is necessary to carry it as level as 
possible with the surface of the plate ; for otherwise, if 
the fingers slip between them, the line that will be pro- 
duced, whether curve or straight, will become deeper 
and deeper in the progress of its formation, which en- 
tirely prevents strokes being made at one cut, that 
will be fine at their extremities, and larger in the mid- 
dle, and occasions the necessity of re-touching to bring 
them to that state ; for this reason, it is very necessary 
for those who would learn to engrave in perfection, to 
endeavour, by frequent trials, to acquire the habit of 


making such strokes both strait and curving-, by light- 
ening or sinking the engraver with the hand, accord- 
ing to the occasion. If, after finishing the design, any 
scratches appear, or any part of the engraving be 
falsely executed, such scratches, or faulty parts, must 
be taken out by the burnisher, and further polished, 
if necessary, by the above-mentioned roll. 

The plate being thus engraved, it is proper to round 
off the edges, by using first a rough file, and afterwards 
a smoother, and to blunt the corners a little by the 
same means ; after which the burnisher should be 
passed over the edges to give it a further polish. 

The dry point, or needle, which has been of late much 
used in engraving, is a tool like an etching point, 
which, being drawn hard on the copper, cuts a stroke, 
and raises a burr, the burr is scraped off, and there re- 
mains a stroke more soft and delicate than can be 
produced in any other way. 

In the conduct of the graver and dry point consists all 
the art, for which there are no rules to be given; all 
depending on the habitude, disposition, and genius of 
the artist : however, besides the explanations already 
given, some general observations and directions may 
not be improper; as the principles of engraving are the 
same with those of painting, a person cannot expect to 
attain any considerable degree of perfection in this art 
who is not a good master of design: and therefore he 
ought to be well acquainted with both perspective and 
architecture ; for the former, by the proper gradations 
of strong and faint colours, will enable him to throw 
backwards the figures and other objects of the picture 
or design which he proposes to imitate ; and the latter 


will teach him to preserve the due proportion of its 
several orders, which the painter often entrusts to the 
discretion of the engraver. In order to preserve equa- 
lity and union in his works, the engraver should always 
sketch out the principal objects of his piece before he 
undertakes to finish them. In working, the strokes of 
the graver should never be crossed too much in a lozenge 
manner, particularly in the representation of flesh, be- 
cause sharp angles produce the unpleasing effect of lat- 
ticework, and take from the eye the repose which is 
agreeable to it in all kinds of picturesque design; but 
we should except the case of clouds, tempests, waves 
of the sea, the skins of hairy animals, or the leaves of 
trees, where this method of crossing may be admitted; 
but in avoiding the lozenge, it is not proper to get 
entirely into the square, which would give too much 
of the hardness of stone. In conducting the strokes, 
the action of the figures, and of all their parts, should 
be considered, and it should be observed how they 
advance towards, or recede from the eye ; and the 
graver should be guided according to the risings or 
cavities of the muscles or folds, making the strokes 
wider or fainter in the light, and closer and firmer in 
the shades. Thus the figures will not appear jagged, 
and the hand should be lightened in such a manner, 
that the outlines may be formed and terminated with- 
out being cut too hard ; however, though the strokes 
break off where the muscle begins, yet they ought 
always to have a certain connection with each other, 
so that the first stroke may often serve by its return to 
make the second, which will show the freedom of the 


In engraving- the flesh, the effect may be produced 
in the lighter parts and middle tints, by long pecks of 
the graver, rather than by light lines, or by round dots ; 
or by dots a little lengthened by the graver; or, best 
of all, by a judicious mixture of these together. 

In engraving the hair and the beard, the engraver 
should begin his beard by laying the principal grounds, 
and sketching the chief shades in a careless manner, 
or with a few strokes ; and he may finish it at leisure 
with finer and thinner strokes to the extremities. 
When architecture or sculpture is to be represented, 
except it be old and ruinous buildings, the work ought 
not to be made very black ; because, as edifices are 
commonly constructed either of stone or white marble, 
the colour, being reflected on all sides,doesnot produce 
,dark or brown shades, as in other substances. White 
points must not be put in the pupils ot the eyes of 
the figures, as in engravings after painting ; nor must 
the hair or beard be represented as in nature, which 
makes the locks appear flowing in the air; because in 
sculpture there can be no such appearance. 

In engraving cloths of different kinds, linen should 
be done with finer and closer lines than other sorts, 
and be executed with single strokes. Woollen cloth 
should be engraved wide, in proportion to the coarse- 
ness or fineness of the stuff, and with only two strokes ; 
and when the strokes are crossed, the second should 
be smaller than the first, and the third than the second. 
Shining stuffs, which are generally of silk or satin, 
and which produce flat and broken folds, should be 
engraved more hard and more straight than others 
with one or two strokes, as their colours are bright or 


brown ; and between the first strokes other smaller 
must be joined, which is called interlining. Velvet 
and plush are expressed in the same manner, and 
should always be interlined. Metals, as armours, &c. 
are also represented by interlining, or by clear single 
strokes. In architecture, the strokes which form the 
rounding object should tend to the point of sight, and, 
when whole columns occur, it is proper to produce the 
effect as much as possible by perpendicular strokes. 
If a cross stroke is put, it should be at right angles, 
and wider and thinner than the first stroke. In en- 
graving mountains, the strokes ought to be frequently 
discontinued and broken, for sharp and craggy objects ; 
and they should be straight, in the lozenge manner, 
and accompanied with long points or dots ; and rocks 
should be represented by cross strokes more square 
and even. Objects that are distant towards the hor- 
rizon should be kept very tender, and slightly charged 
with black. Waters that are calm and still are best 
represented by strokes that are straight, and parallel to 
the horizon, interlined with those that are finer ; omit- 
ting such places as, in consequence of gleams of light, 
exhibit the shining appearance of water, and the form 
of objects reflected from the water, at a small distance 
upon it, or on the banks of the water, are expressed 
by the same strokes, retouched more strongly or 
faintly as occasion may require, and even by some that 
are perpendicular. For agitated waters, as the waves 
of the sea, the first strokes should follow the figure of 
the waves, and may be interlined, and the cross strokes 
ought to be very lozenge. In cascades, the strokes 
should follow the fall, and be interlined. In engrav- 


ing clouds, the graver should sport when they appear 
thick and agitated, in turning every way according to 
their foim and their agitation. If the clouds are dark, 
so that two strokes are necessary, they should be 
crossed more lozenge than the figures, and the second 
strokes should be rather wider than the first. The flat 
clouds that are lost insensibly in the clear sky, should 
be made by strokes parallel to the horizon, and a little 
waving ; if second strokes are required, they should be 
more or less lozenge ; and when they are brought to 
the extremity, the hand should be so lightened, that 
they may form no outline. The flat and clear sky is 
represented by parallel and straight strokes, without 
the least turning. In landscapes, the trees, rocks 
earth and herbage, should be etched as much as pos- 
sible ; nothing should be left for the graver but per- 
fecting, softening, and strengthening. The dry point 
produces an effect more delicate than the graver can, 
and may be used to great advantage in linen, skies, 
distances, ice, and often in water, especially in small 
engravings. In most things it is proper to etch the 
shadows, only leaving the lighter tints for the dry 
point, graver, &c. 


To imitate chalk-drawings, a mixture of varied and 
irregular dots are used, made more or less soft, so as 
to resemble the grain produced by the chalks on paper. 
Every stroke of the chalks on paper may be consider- 
ed as an infinite number of adjoining points, which 


are the small eminences of the grain of the paper 
touched by the chalk in passing over it. When the 
copper-plate has been polished and varnished, or pro- 
perly prepared, as in the common method of engrav- 
ing, the drawing to be imitated may be counterproved 
on the varnish of the plate. If this cannot be conve- 
niently done, black-lead pencil or red chalk, may be 
applied to varnished or oiled paper; and by means of 
this chalk or pencil, all the trees of the original will 
be transmitted to the varnish. The outlines of the 
varnish must be formed in the etching by points, whose 
magnitude and distance must be determined by the 
quality of the strokes in the original drawing. The 
artist may be provided with pointed instruments, or 
needles of various sizes, with single or double points. 
In forming the light and shade, he should distinguish 
between those hatchets which serve to express the per- 
spective of the object, and those which form the ground 
of it. The principal hatches should be more strongly 
marked ; the middle tints, if etched, should be marked 
lightly, or they may be left till the varnish is taken 
off, and be perfected with a greater degree of softness, 
by needles, or the point of the graver, as the original 
may require. There is nothing peculiar in the me- 
thod of applying the arpia fortis in this kind of engrav- 
ing; but it maybe observed, that it should not be left 
so long as to corrode the lighter parts too much ; if 
the light parts are sufficiently corroded, they may be 
stopped out with turpentine varnish, and lamp-black 
mixed together ; and the aqua fortis may be applied 
again to the stronger parts; for it will be no detriment 
to them, if the points, which compose the shade, burst 


into one another, provided the extreme be avoided. 
When the work of the aquafortis is finished, and the 
varnish taken off the copper, it will be necessary in 
the softer parts, such as the flesh, &c. to interstipple 
with proper points; as an effect will be thus produced 
more delicate than it is possible to attain with the 
aquafortis only, and the strongest shades will require 
additional strength to be given them with small strokes 
of the graver. Drawing made with chalks of differ- 
ent colours may be imitated in this manner, if a plate 
be provided for every colour. 


A METHOD of etching on copper, lately invented, 
and by which a soft and beautiful effect is produced, 
resembling a fine drawing in water colours or Indian 
ink. Previous to the operation upon the plate, the 
following powder must be prepared : 

Take equal parts of asphaltum and fine transparent 
rosin, and powder them separately in a mortar. 
Through a muslin sieve, sift upon a sheet of paper a 
thin stratum of the asphaltum, above which sift a si- 
milar layer of the rosin, and upon this another layer 
of asphaltum, continuing these alternate rays till both 
of the powders are exhausted. Then pass the mix- 
ture both together through the same sieve, so as to 


mix them sufficiently for use. Some, instead of the 
above mixture, use powdered gum sandarach only. 
The process is as follows : a copper plate being po- 
lished in the usual way, lay the etching ground upon 
it, and etch the outlines of your design in the same 
manner as directed under the article Etching. The 
ground is then to be softened with a little grease, and 
wiped off with a piece of rag; leaving, however, as 
much grease upon the plate as just to dim the copper. 
Next sift the powder upon the surface of the plate ; af- 
ter which, strike the other side of it pretty smartly 
against the edge of a table to discharge it of loose pow- 
der. This done, with a hand-vice hold the back of 
the plate over a chaffing-dish of burning charcoal, till 
it becomes so hot as to give pain upon being touched 
with the back of the hand ; and the powder which 
adhered to the grease will now be fixed to the plate. 
The plate being tlien suffered to cool, take turpentine 
varnish, mixed with ivory black, and with a hair pen- 
cil dipped in it, cover all the lights or places where 
there is no work or shade. A rim or border of bees- 
wax is now to be raised round the plate ; and having 
reduced a quantity of aqua for tis to a proper strength 
with water, pour it on, and let it stand five minutes 
for the first or lightest shade ; after which, pour it off; 
and, having washed the plate with water, set it edge- 
wise to dry. Then with varnish stop out all the light 
shades; pour it on the aquafortis for the second tint, 
and let it stand five minutes more ; proceeding in the 
same manner for every tint till you produce the 
darkest shades. If a bold open ground is want- 
ed in any part, this requires an after operation. 


The ground must be laid as in the other case, by 
sifting on the powder; only this powder must be 
much coarser, and the plate more heated, in order 
that the particles of the powder may spread and form 
small circles ; even good clear rosin will do by it- 
self. In etching landscapes, the sky and distant ob- 
jects are also performed by a second operation, and 
the powder is sifted upon the plate with a finer sieve. 
If the trees or any part of the fore-ground require to 
be finished higher, the plate must be entirely cleansed 
from grease with bread, and a ground laid in the com- 
mon way of etching ; when you may finish as highly 
and neatly as you please with the needle or point, by 
stippling with dots, and biting in those parts, or by a 
rolling wheel, which is more expeditious. 

If different colours are to be expressed in aqua tinta 
there will be required so many different plates, each 
having only that part etched upon it which is designed 
to be charged with its proper colour. It may happen, 
however, in particular subjects, that some of the co- 
lours are so distant from each other as to allow the 
printer room to rub them in without blending; in 
which ease, two or three different colours may be 
printed from the same plate at once. Where differ- 
ent plates are necessary, a separate one having a pin 
in each corner, must be provided as a sole or bottom 
to the aqua tinta plates ; and these again must be ex- 
actly fitted, having each a small hole in their corners 
for passing over the pins of the sole ; the said pins 
serving the double purpose of retaining the plates 
successively in their due position, and of directing the 
printer in placing their paper exactly on each plate so 


as not to shift; by which means each tint or colour 
will be exactly received on its proper place. This is 
the method practised in France. A landscape, or any 
similar subject, may be printed off at once in its dif- 
ferent proper colours, by laying these upon the plate. 
In this case, the colours must be pretty thick in their 
consistence ; and the plate must be carefully wiped 
in the usual way after the laying on of each tint, 
as well as receive a general wipe when charged with 
all the tints. 


Plummet & Brewis, Printers, Love Lane, Little Eaitcheap. 

Just Published, by the same Author, 
Price 3s. 6d. Boards, 




Arithmetic, Acoustics, Electricity, Magnetism, Optics, 
Pneumatics, &c. &c. 

Together with 
Amusing Secrets in various Branches of Science. ". 

The Whole calculated to form an agreeable and improving 
Exercise for the Mind. 

Particularly recommended as a useful School Book. 

Also, by the same Author, 
Price 2s. 6d. Boards, 


Or a DemonstratioK of 

From the Works of his Creation. 



Enfield, William 

Young artist's assistant 
5th ed. 





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